# C/C++ Library Interfaces¶

An underlying philosophy in the development of Sage is that it should provide unified library-level access to the some of the best GPL’d C/C++ libraries. Sage provides access to many libraries which are included with Sage.

The interfaces are implemented via shared libraries and data is
moved between systems purely in memory. In particular, there is no
interprocess interpreter parsing (e.g., `pexpect`

),
since everything is linked together and run as a single process.
This is much more robust and efficient than using `pexpect`

.

Each of these interfaces is used by other parts of Sage. For example, eclib is used by the elliptic curves module to compute ranks of elliptic curves and PARI is used for computation of class groups. It is thus probably not necessary for a casual user of Sage to be aware of the modules described in this chapter.

- Sage interface to Cremona’s
`eclib`

library (also known as`mwrank`

) - Cython interface to Cremona’s
`eclib`

library (also known as`mwrank`

) - Cremona matrices
- Modular symbols using eclib newforms
- Cremona modular symbols
- Cremona modular symbols
- Rubinstein’s lcalc library
- Interface between Sage and PARI
- Convert PARI objects to Sage types
- Ring of pari objects
- Hyperelliptic Curve Point Finding, via ratpoints (deprecated)
- libSingular: Functions
- libSingular: Function Factory
- libSingular: Conversion Routines and Initialisation
- Wrapper for Singular’s Polynomial Arithmetic
- libSingular: Options
- Wrapper for Singular’s Rings
- Singular’s Groebner Strategy Objects
- Cython wrapper for the Parma Polyhedra Library (PPL)
- Linbox interface
- Interface between flint matrices and linbox
- Flint imports
- FLINT fmpz_poly class wrapper
- FLINT Arithmetic Functions
- Symmetrica library
- Utilities for Sage-mpmath interaction
- Victor Shoup’s NTL C++ Library
- The Elliptic Curve Method for Integer Factorization (ECM)
- An interface to Anders Buch’s Littlewood-Richardson Calculator
`lrcalc`

- Readline
- Context Managers for LibGAP
- Gap functions
- Long tests for libGAP
- Utility functions for libGAP
- libGAP shared library Interface to GAP
- Short tests for libGAP
- libGAP element wrapper
- LibGAP Workspace Support
- Library interface to Embeddable Common Lisp (ECL)
- GSL arrays