# Congruence Subgroup $$\Gamma_0(N)$$¶

class sage.modular.arithgroup.congroup_gamma0.Gamma0_class(level)

The congruence subgroup $$\Gamma_0(N)$$.

coset_reps()

Return representatives for the right cosets of this congruence subgroup in $${\rm SL}_2(\ZZ)$$ as a generator object.

Use list(self.coset_reps()) to obtain coset reps as a list.

EXAMPLES:

sage: list(Gamma0(5).coset_reps())
[
[1 0]  [ 0 -1]  [1 0]  [ 0 -1]  [ 0 -1]  [ 0 -1]
[0 1], [ 1  0], [1 1], [ 1  2], [ 1  3], [ 1  4]
]
sage: list(Gamma0(4).coset_reps())
[
[1 0]  [ 0 -1]  [1 0]  [ 0 -1]  [ 0 -1]  [1 0]
[0 1], [ 1  0], [1 1], [ 1  2], [ 1  3], [2 1]
]
sage: list(Gamma0(1).coset_reps())
[
[1 0]
[0 1]
]

dimension_new_cusp_forms(k=2, p=0)

Return the dimension of the space of new (or $$p$$-new) weight $$k$$ cusp forms for this congruence subgroup.

INPUT:

• $$k$$ – an integer (default: 2), the weight. Not fully implemented for $$k = 1$$.
• $$p$$ – integer (default: 0); if nonzero, compute the $$p$$-new subspace.

OUTPUT: Integer

ALGORITHM:

EXAMPLES:

sage: Gamma0(11000).dimension_new_cusp_forms()
240
sage: Gamma0(11000).dimension_new_cusp_forms(k=1)
0
sage: Gamma0(22).dimension_new_cusp_forms(k=4)
3
sage: Gamma0(389).dimension_new_cusp_forms(k=2,p=17)
32

divisor_subgroups()

Return the subgroups of SL2Z of the form Gamma0(M) that contain this subgroup, i.e. those for M a divisor of N.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Gamma0(24).divisor_subgroups()
[Modular Group SL(2,Z),
Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(2),
Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(3),
Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(4),
Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(6),
Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(8),
Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(12),
Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(24)]

gamma_h_subgroups()

Return the subgroups of the form $$\Gamma_H(N)$$ contained in self, where $$N$$ is the level of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = Gamma0(11)
sage: G.gamma_h_subgroups()
[Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(11), Congruence Subgroup Gamma_H(11) with H generated by , Congruence Subgroup Gamma_H(11) with H generated by , Congruence Subgroup Gamma1(11)]
sage: G = Gamma0(12)
sage: G.gamma_h_subgroups()
[Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(12), Congruence Subgroup Gamma_H(12) with H generated by , Congruence Subgroup Gamma_H(12) with H generated by , Congruence Subgroup Gamma_H(12) with H generated by , Congruence Subgroup Gamma1(12)]

generators(algorithm='farey')

Return generators for this congruence subgroup.

INPUT:

• algorithm (string): either farey (default) or todd-coxeter.

If algorithm is set to "farey", then the generators will be calculated using Farey symbols, which will always return a minimal generating set. See farey_symbol for more information.

If algorithm is set to "todd-coxeter", a simpler algorithm based on Todd-Coxeter enumeration will be used. This tends to return far larger sets of generators.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Gamma0(3).generators()
[
[1 1]  [-1  1]
[0 1], [-3  2]
]
sage: Gamma0(3).generators(algorithm="todd-coxeter")
[
[1 1]  [-1  0]  [ 1 -1]  [1 0]  [1 1]  [-1  0]  [ 1  0]
[0 1], [ 0 -1], [ 0  1], [3 1], [0 1], [ 3 -1], [-3  1]
]
sage: SL2Z.gens()
(
[ 0 -1]  [1 1]
[ 1  0], [0 1]
)

index()

Return the index of self in the full modular group.

This is given by

$\begin{split}N \prod_{\substack{p \mid N \\ \text{p prime}}}\left(1 + \frac{1}{p}\right).\end{split}$

EXAMPLES:

sage: [Gamma0(n).index() for n in [1..19]]
[1, 3, 4, 6, 6, 12, 8, 12, 12, 18, 12, 24, 14, 24, 24, 24, 18, 36, 20]
sage: Gamma0(32041).index()
32220

is_even()

Return True precisely if this subgroup contains the matrix -1.

Since $$\Gamma0(N)$$ always contains the matrix -1, this always returns True.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Gamma0(12).is_even()
True
sage: SL2Z.is_even()
True

is_subgroup(right)

Return True if self is a subgroup of right.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = Gamma0(20)
sage: G.is_subgroup(SL2Z)
True
sage: G.is_subgroup(Gamma0(4))
True
sage: G.is_subgroup(Gamma0(20))
True
sage: G.is_subgroup(Gamma0(7))
False
sage: G.is_subgroup(Gamma1(20))
False
sage: G.is_subgroup(GammaH(40, []))
False
sage: Gamma0(80).is_subgroup(GammaH(40, [31, 21, 17]))
True
sage: Gamma0(2).is_subgroup(Gamma1(2))
True

ncusps()

Return the number of cusps of this subgroup $$\Gamma_0(N)$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: [Gamma0(n).ncusps() for n in [1..19]]
[1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 4, 2, 4, 4, 4, 2, 6, 2, 4, 4, 6, 2, 8, 2]
sage: [Gamma0(n).ncusps() for n in prime_range(2,100)]
[2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2]

nu2()

Return the number of elliptic points of order 2 for this congruence subgroup $$\Gamma_0(N)$$. The number of these is given by a standard formula: 0 if $$N$$ is divisible by 4 or any prime congruent to -1 mod 4, and otherwise $$2^d$$ where d is the number of odd primes dividing $$N$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Gamma0(2).nu2()
1
sage: Gamma0(4).nu2()
0
sage: Gamma0(21).nu2()
0
sage: Gamma0(1105).nu2()
8
sage: [Gamma0(n).nu2() for n in [1..19]]
[1, 1, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0]

nu3()

Return the number of elliptic points of order 3 for this congruence subgroup $$\Gamma_0(N)$$. The number of these is given by a standard formula: 0 if $$N$$ is divisible by 9 or any prime congruent to -1 mod 3, and otherwise $$2^d$$ where d is the number of primes other than 3 dividing $$N$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Gamma0(2).nu3()
0
sage: Gamma0(3).nu3()
1
sage: Gamma0(9).nu3()
0
sage: Gamma0(7).nu3()
2
sage: Gamma0(21).nu3()
2
sage: Gamma0(1729).nu3()
8

sage.modular.arithgroup.congroup_gamma0.Gamma0_constructor(N)

Return the congruence subgroup Gamma0(N).

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = Gamma0(51) ; G # indirect doctest
Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(51)
sage: G == Gamma0(51)
True
sage: G is Gamma0(51)
True

sage.modular.arithgroup.congroup_gamma0.is_Gamma0(x)

Return True if x is a congruence subgroup of type Gamma0.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modular.arithgroup.all import is_Gamma0
sage: is_Gamma0(SL2Z)
True
sage: is_Gamma0(Gamma0(13))
True
sage: is_Gamma0(Gamma1(6))
False