Hexads in S(5,6,12)¶
This module completes a 5-element subset of a 12-set \(X\) into a hexad in a Steiner system \(S(5, 6, 12)\) using Curtis and Conway’s “kitten method”. The labeling is either the “modulo 11” labeling or the “shuffle” labeling.
The main functions implemented in this file are
Minimog.blackjack_move()
and Minimog.find_hexad()
.
Enter blackjack_move?
for help to play blackjack (i.e., the rules of the game), or
find_hexad?
for help finding hexads of \(S(5, 6, 12)\) in
the shuffle labeling.
This picture is the kitten in the “shuffle” labeling:
6
9
10 8
7 2 5
9 4 11 9
10 8 3 10 8
1 0
The corresponding MINIMOG is:
+-----+-----+-----+-----+
| 6 | 3 | 0 | 9 |
+-----+-----+-----+-----+
| 5 | 2 | 7 | 10 |
+-----+-----+-----+-----+
| 4 | 1 | 8 | 11 |
+-----+-----+-----+-----+
which is specified by the global variable minimog_shuffle
.
See the docstrings for Minimog.find_hexad()
and
Minimog.blackjack_move()
for further details and examples.
AUTHOR:
David Joyner (2006-05)
REFERENCES:
Some details are also online at: http://www.permutationpuzzles.org/hexad/
- class sage.games.hexad.Minimog(type='shuffle')¶
Bases:
object
This implements the Conway/Curtis minimog idea for describing the Steiner triple system \(S(5, 6, 12)\).
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.games.hexad import * sage: Minimog(type="shuffle") Minimog of type shuffle sage: M = Minimog(type = "modulo11") sage: M.minimog [ 0 3 +Infinity 2] [ 5 9 8 10] [ 4 1 6 7]
- blackjack_move(L0)¶
Perform a blackjack move.
INPUT:
L0
– a list of cards of length 6, taken from \(\{0, 1, ..., 11\}\)
MATHEMATICAL BLACKJACK
Mathematical blackjack is played with 12 cards, labeled \(0, ..., 11\) (for example: king, ace, \(2\), \(3\), …, \(10\), jack, where the king is \(0\) and the jack is \(11\)). Divide the 12 cards into two piles of \(6\) (to be fair, this should be done randomly). Each of the \(6\) cards of one of these piles are to be placed face up on the table. The remaining cards are in a stack which is shared and visible to both players. If the sum of the cards face up on the table is less than 21 then no legal move is possible so you must shuffle the cards and deal a new game. (Conway calls such a game \(*={0|0}\), where \(0={|}\); in this game the first player automatically wins.)
Players alternate moves.
A move consists of exchanging a card on the table with a lower card from the other pile.
The player whose move makes the sum of the cards on the table under 21 loses.
The winning strategy (given below) for this game is due to Conway and Ryba. There is a Steiner system \(S(5,6,12)\) of hexads in the set \(\{0, 1, ..., 11\}\). This Steiner system is associated to the MINIMOG of in the “shuffle numbering” rather than the “modulo \(11\) labeling”.
Proposition ([KR2001]) For this Steiner system, the winning strategy is to choose a move which is a hexad from this system.
EXAMPLES:
sage: M = Minimog(type="modulo11") sage: M.blackjack_move([0,2,3,6,1,10]) '6 --> 5. The total went from 22 to 21.' sage: M = Minimog(type="shuffle") sage: M.blackjack_move([0,2,4,6,7,11]) '4 --> 3. The total went from 30 to 29.'
Is this really a hexad?
sage: M.find_hexad([11,2,3,6,7]) ([0, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11], ['square 9', 'picture 1'])
So, yes it is, but here is further confirmation:
sage: M.blackjack_move([0,2,3,6,7,11]) This is a hexad. There is no winning move, so make a random legal move. [0, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11]
Now, suppose player 2 replaced the 11 by a 9. Your next move:
sage: M.blackjack_move([0,2,3,6,7,9]) '7 --> 1. The total went from 27 to 21.'
You have now won. Sage will even tell you so:
sage: M.blackjack_move([0,2,3,6,1,9]) 'No move possible. Shuffle the deck and redeal.'
AUTHOR:
David Joyner (2006-05)
- find_hexad(pts)¶
Find a hexad of some type.
INPUT:
pts
– a list S of 5 elements of MINIMOG
OUTPUT:
hexad containing \(S \cup \{x0\}\) of some type
Note
The 3 “points at infinity” are
{MINIMOG[0][2], MINIMOG[2][1], MINIMOG[0][0]}
.Theorem ([Cu1984], [Co1984]): Each hexads is of exactly one of the following types:
{3 “points at infinity”} union {any line},
the union of any two (distinct) parallel lines in the same picture,
one “point at infinity” union a cross in the corresponding picture, or
two “points at infinity” union a square in the picture corresponding to the omitted point at infinity.
More precisely, there are 132 such hexads (12 of type 0, 12 of type 1, 54 of type 2, and 54 of type 3). They form a Steiner system of type \((5,6,12)\).
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.games.hexad import * sage: M = Minimog(type="shuffle") sage: M.find_hexad([0,1,2,3,4]) ([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 11], ['square 2', 'picture 6']) sage: M.find_hexad([1,2,3,4,5]) ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], ['square 8', 'picture 0']) sage: M.find_hexad([2,3,4,5,8]) ([2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11], ['lines (1, 2)', 'picture 1']) sage: M.find_hexad([0,1,2,4,6]) ([0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8], ['line 1', 'picture 1']) sage: M = Minimog(type="modulo11") sage: M.find_hexad([1,2,3,4,SR(infinity)]) # random (machine dependent?) order ([+Infinity, 2, 3, 4, 1, 10], ['square 8', 'picture 0'])
AUTHOR:
David Joyner (2006-05)
- find_hexad0(pts)¶
Find a hexad of type 0.
INPUT:
pts
– a set of 2 distinct elements of MINIMOG, but not including the “points at infinity”
OUTPUT:
hexad containing
pts
and of type 0 (the 3 points “at infinity” union a line)Note
The 3 points “at infinity” are
{MINIMOG[0][2], MINIMOG[2][1], MINIMOG[0][0]}
.EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.games.hexad import * sage: M = Minimog(type="shuffle") sage: M.find_hexad0(set([2,4])) ([0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8], ['line 1', 'picture 1'])
- find_hexad1(pts)¶
Find a hexad of type 1.
INPUT:
pts
– a set of 5 distinct elements of MINIMOG
OUTPUT:
hexad containing
pts
and of type 1 (union of 2 parallel lines – no points “at infinity”)Note
The 3 points “at infinity” are
{MINIMOG[0][2], MINIMOG[2][1], MINIMOG[0][0]}
.EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.games.hexad import * sage: M = Minimog(type="shuffle") sage: M.find_hexad1(set([2,3,4,5,8])) ([2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11], ['lines (1, 2)', 'picture 1'])
- find_hexad2(pts, x0)¶
Find a hexad of type 2.
INPUT:
pts
– a list S of 4 elements of MINIMOG, not including any “points at infinity”x0
– in{MINIMOG[0][2], MINIMOG[2][1], MINIMOG[0][0]}
OUTPUT:
hexad containing \(S \cup \{x0\}\) of type 2
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.games.hexad import * sage: M = Minimog(type="shuffle") sage: M.find_hexad2([2,3,4,5],1) ([], [])
The above output indicates that there is no hexad of type 2 containing \(\{2,3,4,5\}\). However, there is one containing \(\{2,3,4,8\}\):
sage: M.find_hexad2([2,3,4,8],0) ([0, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9], ['cross 12', 'picture 0'])
- find_hexad3(pts, x0, x1)¶
Find a hexad of type 3.
INPUT:
pts
– a list of 3 elements of MINIMOG, not including any “points at infinity”x0
,x1
– in{MINIMOG[0][2], MINIMOG[2][1], MINIMOG[0][0]}
OUTPUT:
hexad containing pts union {x0,x1} of type 3 (square at picture of “omitted point at infinity”)
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.games.hexad import * sage: M = Minimog(type="shuffle") sage: M.find_hexad3([2,3,4],0,1) ([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 11], ['square 2', 'picture 6'])
- print_kitten()¶
This simply prints the “kitten” (expressed as a triangular diagram of symbols).
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.games.hexad import * sage: M = Minimog("shuffle") sage: M.print_kitten() 0 8 9 10 5 11 3 8 2 4 8 9 10 7 9 10 6 1 sage: M = Minimog("modulo11") sage: M.print_kitten() +Infinity 6 2 10 5 7 3 6 9 4 6 2 10 8 2 10 0 1
- sage.games.hexad.picture_set(A, L)¶
This is needed in the
Minimog.find_hexad()
function below.EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.games.hexad import * sage: M = Minimog(type="shuffle") sage: picture_set(M.picture00, M.cross[2]) {5, 7, 8, 9, 10} sage: picture_set(M.picture02, M.square[7]) {2, 3, 5, 8}
- sage.games.hexad.view_list(L)¶
This provides a printout of the lines, crosses and squares of the MINIMOG, as in Curtis’ paper [Cu1984].
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.games.hexad import * sage: M = Minimog(type="shuffle") sage: view_list(M.line[1]) [0 0 0] [1 1 1] [0 0 0] sage: view_list(M.cross[1]) [1 1 1] [0 0 1] [0 0 1] sage: view_list(M.square[1]) [0 0 0] [1 1 0] [1 1 0]