Various functions to debug Python internals#

sage.cpython.debug.getattr_debug(obj, name, default='_no_default')#

A re-implementation of getattr() with lots of debugging info.

This will correctly use __getattr__ if needed. On the other hand, it assumes a generic (not overridden) implementation of __getattribute__. Note that Cython implements __getattr__ for a cdef class using __getattribute__, so this will not detect a __getattr__ in that case.


  • obj – the object whose attribute is requested

  • name – (string) the name of the attribute

  • default – default value to return if attribute was not found


sage: _ = getattr_debug(list, "reverse")  # not tested - broken in python 3.12
getattr_debug(obj=<class 'list'>, name='reverse'):
  type(obj) = <class 'type'>
  object has __dict__ slot (<class 'dict'>)
  did not find 'reverse' in MRO classes
  found 'reverse' in object __dict__
  returning <method 'reverse' of 'list' objects> (<class 'method_descriptor'>)
sage: _ = getattr_debug([], "reverse")
getattr_debug(obj=[], name='reverse'):
  type(obj) = <class 'list'>
  object does not have __dict__ slot
  found 'reverse' in dict of <class 'list'>
  got <method 'reverse' of 'list' objects> (<class 'method_descriptor'>)
  attribute is ordinary descriptor (has __get__)
  calling __get__()
  returning <built-in method reverse of list object at 0x... (<class 'builtin_function_or_method'>)
sage: _ = getattr_debug([], "__doc__")
getattr_debug(obj=[], name='__doc__'):
  type(obj) = <class 'list'>
  object does not have __dict__ slot
  found '__doc__' in dict of <class 'list'>
  got ... 'str'>)
  returning ... 'str'>)
sage: _ = getattr_debug(gp(1), "log")                                           # needs sage.libs.pari
getattr_debug(obj=1, name='log'):
  type(obj) = <class ''>
  object has __dict__ slot (<class 'dict'>)
  did not find 'log' in MRO classes
  object __dict__ does not have 'log'
  calling __getattr__()
  returning log (<class 'sage.interfaces.expect.FunctionElement'>)
sage: from ipywidgets import IntSlider
sage: _ = getattr_debug(IntSlider(), "value")
getattr_debug(obj=IntSlider(value=0), name='value'):
  type(obj) = <class 'ipywidgets.widgets.widget_int.IntSlider'>
  object has __dict__ slot (<class 'dict'>)
  found 'value' in dict of <class 'ipywidgets.widgets.widget_int._Int'>
  got <traitlets.traitlets.CInt object at ... (<class 'traitlets.traitlets.CInt'>)
  attribute is data descriptor (has __get__ and __set__)
  ignoring __dict__ because we have a data descriptor
  calling __get__()
  returning 0 (<class 'int'>)
sage: _ = getattr_debug(1, "foo")
Traceback (most recent call last):
AttributeError: 'sage.rings.integer.Integer' object has no attribute 'foo'...
sage: _ = getattr_debug(1, "foo", "xyz")
getattr_debug(obj=1, name='foo'):
  type(obj) = <class 'sage.rings.integer.Integer'>
  object does not have __dict__ slot
  did not find 'foo' in MRO classes
  class does not have __getattr__
  attribute not found
  returning default 'xyz'
sage.cpython.debug.shortrepr(obj, max=50)#

Return repr(obj) bounded to max characters. If the string is too long, it is truncated and ~~~ is added to the end.


sage: from sage.cpython.debug import shortrepr
sage: print(shortrepr("Hello world!"))
'Hello world!'
sage: print(shortrepr("Hello world!" * 4))
'Hello world!Hello world!Hello world!Hello world!'
sage: print(shortrepr("Hello world!" * 5))
'Hello world!Hello world!Hello world!Hello worl~~~

Print all internals of the type cls


sage: type_debug(object)  # random
<class 'object'> (0x7fc57da7f040)
  ob_refcnt: 9739
  ob_type: <class 'type'>
  tp_name: object
  tp_basicsize: 16
  tp_itemsize: 0
  tp_dictoffset: 0
  tp_weaklistoffset: 0
  tp_base (__base__): NULL
  tp_bases (__bases__): tuple:
  tp_mro (__mro__): tuple:
    <class 'object'>
  tp_dict (__dict__): dict:
    '__setattr__': <slot wrapper '__setattr__' of 'object' objects>
    '__reduce_ex__': <method '__reduce_ex__' of 'object' objects>
    '__new__': <built-in method __new__ of type object at 0x7fc57da7f040>
    '__reduce__': <method '__reduce__' of 'object' objects>
    '__str__': <slot wrapper '__str__' of 'object' objects>
    '__format__': <method '__format__' of 'object' objects>
    '__getattribute__': <slot wrapper '__getattribute__' of 'object' objects>
    '__class__': <attribute '__class__' of 'object' objects>
    '__delattr__': <slot wrapper '__delattr__' of 'object' objects>
    '__subclasshook__': <method '__subclasshook__' of 'object' objects>
    '__repr__': <slot wrapper '__repr__' of 'object' objects>
    '__hash__': <slot wrapper '__hash__' of 'object' objects>
    '__sizeof__': <method '__sizeof__' of 'object' objects>
    '__doc__': 'The most base type'
    '__init__': <slot wrapper '__init__' of 'object' objects>
  tp_alloc: PyType_GenericAlloc
  tp_new (__new__): 0x7fc57d7594f0
  tp_init (__init__): 0x7fc57d758ee0
  tp_dealloc (__dealloc__): 0x7fc57d757010
  tp_free: PyObject_Del
  tp_repr (__repr__): 0x7fc57d75b990
  tp_print: NULL
  tp_hash (__hash__): _Py_HashPointer
  tp_call (__call__): NULL
  tp_str (__str__): 0x7fc57d757020
  tp_compare (__cmp__): NULL
  tp_richcompare (__richcmp__): NULL
  tp_getattr (__getattribute__): NULL
  tp_setattr (__setattribute__): NULL
  tp_getattro (__getattribute__): PyObject_GenericGetAttr
  tp_setattro (__setattribute__): PyObject_GenericSetAttr
  tp_iter (__iter__): NULL
  tp_iternext (__next__): NULL
  tp_descr_get (__get__): NULL
  tp_descr_set (__set__): NULL
  tp_cache: NULL
  tp_weaklist: NULL
  tp_traverse: NULL
  tp_clear: NULL
  tp_is_gc: NULL
  tp_as_number: NULL
  tp_as_sequence: NULL
  tp_as_mapping: NULL
  tp_as_buffer: NULL
  tp_version_tag: 2
sage: type_debug(None)
Traceback (most recent call last):
TypeError: None is not a type