# Chain homotopies and chain contractions#

Chain homotopies are standard constructions in homological algebra: given chain complexes $$C$$ and $$D$$ and chain maps $$f, g: C \to D$$, say with differential of degree $$-1$$, a chain homotopy $$H$$ between $$f$$ and $$g$$ is a collection of maps $$H_n: C_n \to D_{n+1}$$ satisfying

$\partial_D H + H \partial_C = f - g.$

The presence of a chain homotopy defines an equivalence relation (chain homotopic) on chain maps. If $$f$$ and $$g$$ are chain homotopic, then one can show that $$f$$ and $$g$$ induce the same map on homology.

Chain contractions are not as well known. The papers [MAR2009], [RMA2009], and [PR2015] provide some references. Given two chain complexes $$C$$ and $$D$$, a chain contraction is a chain homotopy $$H: C \to C$$ for which there are chain maps $$\pi: C \to D$$ (“projection”) and $$\iota: D \to C$$ (“inclusion”) such that

• $$H$$ is a chain homotopy between $$1_C$$ and $$\iota \pi$$,

• $$\pi \iota = 1_D$$,

• $$\pi H = 0$$,

• $$H \iota = 0$$,

• $$H H = 0$$.

Such a chain homotopy provides a strong relation between the chain complexes $$C$$ and $$D$$; for example, their homology groups are isomorphic.

class sage.homology.chain_homotopy.ChainContraction(matrices, pi, iota)#

Bases: ChainHomotopy

A chain contraction.

An algebraic gradient vector field $$H: C \to C$$ (that is a chain homotopy satisfying $$H H = 0$$) for which there are chain maps $$\pi: C \to D$$ (“projection”) and $$\iota: D \to C$$ (“inclusion”) such that

• $$H$$ is a chain homotopy between $$1_C$$ and $$\iota \pi$$,

• $$\pi \iota = 1_D$$,

• $$\pi H = 0$$,

• $$H \iota = 0$$.

H is defined by a dictionary matrices of matrices.

INPUT:

• matrices – dictionary of matrices, keyed by dimension

• pi – a chain map $$C \to D$$

• iota – a chain map $$D \to C$$

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.homology.chain_homotopy import ChainContraction
sage: C = ChainComplex({0: zero_matrix(ZZ, 1), 1: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1)})
sage: D = ChainComplex({0: matrix(ZZ, 0, 1)})


The chain complex $$C$$ is chain homotopy equivalent to $$D$$, which is just a copy of $$\ZZ$$ in degree 0, and we construct a chain contraction:

sage: pi = Hom(C,D)({0: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1)})
sage: iota = Hom(D,C)({0: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1)})
sage: H = ChainContraction({0: zero_matrix(ZZ, 0, 1),
....:                       1: zero_matrix(ZZ, 1),
....:                       2: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1)}, pi, iota)

dual()#

The chain contraction dual to this one.

This is useful when switching from homology to cohomology.

EXAMPLES:

sage: S2 = simplicial_complexes.Sphere(2)                                   # needs sage.graphs
sage: phi, M = S2.algebraic_topological_model(QQ)                           # needs sage.graphs
sage: phi.iota()                                                            # needs sage.graphs
Chain complex morphism:
From: Chain complex with at most 3 nonzero terms over Rational Field
To: Chain complex with at most 3 nonzero terms over Rational Field


Lifting the degree zero homology class gives a single vertex, but the degree zero cohomology class needs to be detected on every vertex, and vice versa for degree 2:

sage: # needs sage.graphs
sage: phi.iota().in_degree(0)
[0]
[0]
[0]
[1]
sage: phi.dual().iota().in_degree(0)
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
sage: phi.iota().in_degree(2)
[-1]
[ 1]
[-1]
[ 1]
sage: phi.dual().iota().in_degree(2)
[0]
[0]
[0]
[1]

iota()#

The chain map $$\iota$$ associated to this chain contraction.

EXAMPLES:

sage: S2 = simplicial_complexes.Sphere(2)                                   # needs sage.graphs
sage: phi, M = S2.algebraic_topological_model(QQ)                           # needs sage.graphs
sage: phi.iota()                                                            # needs sage.graphs
Chain complex morphism:
From: Chain complex with at most 3 nonzero terms over Rational Field
To: Chain complex with at most 3 nonzero terms over Rational Field


Lifting the degree zero homology class gives a single vertex:

sage: phi.iota().in_degree(0)                                               # needs sage.graphs
[0]
[0]
[0]
[1]


Lifting the degree two homology class gives the signed sum of all of the 2-simplices:

sage: phi.iota().in_degree(2)                                               # needs sage.graphs
[-1]
[ 1]
[-1]
[ 1]

pi()#

The chain map $$\pi$$ associated to this chain contraction.

EXAMPLES:

sage: # needs sage.graphs
sage: S2 = simplicial_complexes.Sphere(2)
sage: phi, M = S2.algebraic_topological_model(QQ)
sage: phi.pi()
Chain complex morphism:
From: Chain complex with at most 3 nonzero terms over Rational Field
To: Chain complex with at most 3 nonzero terms over Rational Field
sage: phi.pi().in_degree(0)  # Every vertex represents a homology class.
[1 1 1 1]
sage: phi.pi().in_degree(1)  # No homology in degree 1.
[]


The degree 2 homology generator is detected on a single simplex:

sage: phi.pi().in_degree(2)                                                 # needs sage.graphs
[0 0 0 1]

class sage.homology.chain_homotopy.ChainHomotopy(matrices, f, g=None)#

Bases: Morphism

A chain homotopy.

A chain homotopy $$H$$ between chain maps $$f, g: C \to D$$ is a sequence of maps $$H_n: C_n \to D_{n+1}$$ (if the chain complexes are graded homologically) satisfying

$\partial_D H + H \partial_C = f - g.$

INPUT:

• matrices – dictionary of matrices, keyed by dimension

• f – chain map $$C \to D$$

• g (optional) – chain map $$C \to D$$

The dictionary matrices defines H by specifying the matrix defining it in each degree: the entry $$m$$ corresponding to key $$i$$ gives the linear transformation $$C_i \to D_{i+1}$$.

If $$f$$ is specified but not $$g$$, then $$g$$ can be recovered from the defining formula. That is, if $$g$$ is not specified, then it is defined to be $$f - \partial_D H - H \partial_C$$.

Note that the degree of the differential on the chain complex $$C$$ must agree with that for $$D$$, and those degrees determine the “degree” of the chain homotopy map: if the degree of the differential is $$d$$, then the chain homotopy consists of a sequence of maps $$C_n \to C_{n-d}$$. The keys in the dictionary matrices specify the starting degrees.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.homology.chain_homotopy import ChainHomotopy
sage: C = ChainComplex({0: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1)})
sage: D = ChainComplex({0: zero_matrix(ZZ, 1)})
sage: f = Hom(C,D)({0: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1), 1: zero_matrix(ZZ, 1)})
sage: g = Hom(C,D)({0: zero_matrix(ZZ, 1), 1: zero_matrix(ZZ, 1)})
sage: H = ChainHomotopy({0: zero_matrix(ZZ, 0, 1), 1: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1)}, f, g)


Note that the maps $$f$$ and $$g$$ are stored in the attributes H._f and H._g:

sage: H._f
Chain complex morphism:
From: Chain complex with at most 2 nonzero terms over Integer Ring
To: Chain complex with at most 2 nonzero terms over Integer Ring
sage: H._f.in_degree(0)
[1]
sage: H._g.in_degree(0)
[0]


A non-example:

sage: H = ChainHomotopy({0: zero_matrix(ZZ, 0, 1), 1: zero_matrix(ZZ, 1)}, f, g)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: the data do not define a valid chain homotopy

dual()#

Dual chain homotopy to this one.

That is, if this one is a chain homotopy between chain maps $$f, g: C \to D$$, then its dual is a chain homotopy between the dual of $$f$$ and the dual of $$g$$, from $$D^*$$ to $$C^*$$. It is represented in each degree by the transpose of the corresponding matrix.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.homology.chain_homotopy import ChainHomotopy
sage: C = ChainComplex({1: matrix(ZZ, 0, 2)})  # one nonzero term in degree 1
sage: D = ChainComplex({0: matrix(ZZ, 0, 1)})  # one nonzero term in degree 0
sage: f = Hom(C, D)({})
sage: H = ChainHomotopy({1: matrix(ZZ, 1, 2, (3,1))}, f, f)
sage: H.in_degree(1)
[3 1]
sage: H.dual().in_degree(0)
[3]
[1]

in_degree(n)#

The matrix representing this chain homotopy in degree n.

INPUT:

• n – degree

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.homology.chain_homotopy import ChainHomotopy
sage: C = ChainComplex({1: matrix(ZZ, 0, 2)})  # one nonzero term in degree 1
sage: D = ChainComplex({0: matrix(ZZ, 0, 1)})  # one nonzero term in degree 0
sage: f = Hom(C, D)({})
sage: H = ChainHomotopy({1: matrix(ZZ, 1, 2, (3,1))}, f, f)
sage: H.in_degree(1)
[3 1]


This returns an appropriately sized zero matrix if the chain homotopy is not defined in degree n:

sage: H.in_degree(-3)
[]


An algebraic gradient vector field is a linear map $$H: C \to C$$ such that $$H H = 0$$.

(Some authors also require that $$H \partial H = H$$, whereas some make this part of the definition of “homology gradient vector field. We have made the second choice.) See Molina-Abril and Réal [MAR2009] and Réal and Molina-Abril [RMA2009] for this and related terminology.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.homology.chain_homotopy import ChainHomotopy
sage: C = ChainComplex({0: zero_matrix(ZZ, 1), 1: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1)})


The chain complex $$C$$ is chain homotopy equivalent to a copy of $$\ZZ$$ in degree 0. Two chain maps $$C \to C$$ will be chain homotopic as long as they agree in degree 0.

sage: f = Hom(C,C)({0: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1),
....:               1: matrix(ZZ, 1, 1, [3]),
....:               2: matrix(ZZ, 1, 1, [3])})
sage: g = Hom(C,C)({0: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1),
....:               1: matrix(ZZ, 1, 1, [2]),
....:               2: matrix(ZZ, 1, 1, [2])})
sage: H = ChainHomotopy({0: zero_matrix(ZZ, 0, 1),
....:                    1: zero_matrix(ZZ, 1),
....:                    2: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1)}, f, g)
True


A chain homotopy which is not an algebraic gradient vector field:

sage: H = ChainHomotopy({0: zero_matrix(ZZ, 0, 1),
....:                    1: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1),
....:                    2: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1)}, f, g)
False


A homology gradient vector field is an algebraic gradient vector field $$H: C \to C$$ (i.e., a chain homotopy satisfying $$H H = 0$$) such that $$\partial H \partial = \partial$$ and $$H \partial H = H$$.

See Molina-Abril and Réal [MAR2009] and Réal and Molina-Abril [RMA2009] for this and related terminology.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.homology.chain_homotopy import ChainHomotopy
sage: C = ChainComplex({0: zero_matrix(ZZ, 1), 1: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1)})

sage: f = Hom(C,C)({0: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1),
....:               1: matrix(ZZ, 1, 1, [3]),
....:               2: matrix(ZZ, 1, 1, [3])})
sage: g = Hom(C,C)({0: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1),
....:               1: matrix(ZZ, 1, 1, [2]),
....:               2: matrix(ZZ, 1, 1, [2])})
sage: H = ChainHomotopy({0: zero_matrix(ZZ, 0, 1),
....:                    1: zero_matrix(ZZ, 1),
....:                    2: identity_matrix(ZZ, 1)}, f, g)