# Universal cyclotomic field¶

The universal cyclotomic field is the smallest subfield of the complex field containing all roots of unity. It is also the maximal Galois Abelian extension of the rational numbers.

The implementation simply wraps GAP Cyclotomic. As mentioned in their documentation: arithmetical operations are quite expensive, so the use of internally represented cyclotomics is not recommended for doing arithmetic over number fields, such as calculations with matrices of cyclotomics.

Note

There used to be a native Sage version of the universal cyclotomic field written by Christian Stump (see trac ticket #8327). It was slower on most operations and it was decided to use a version based on GAP instead (see trac ticket #18152). One main difference in the design choices is that GAP stores dense vectors whereas the native ones used Python dictionaries (storing only nonzero coefficients). Most operations are faster with GAP except some operation on very sparse elements. All details can be found in trac ticket #18152.

REFERENCES:

• [Bre1997]

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField(); UCF
Universal Cyclotomic Field


To generate cyclotomic elements:

sage: UCF.gen(5)
E(5)
sage: UCF.gen(5,2)
E(5)^2

sage: E = UCF.gen


Equality and inequality checks:

sage: E(6,2) == E(6)^2 == E(3)
True

sage: E(6)^2 != E(3)
False


sage: E(2) * E(3)
-E(3)
sage: f = E(2) + E(3); f
2*E(3) + E(3)^2


Inverses:

sage: f^-1
1/3*E(3) + 2/3*E(3)^2
sage: f.inverse()
1/3*E(3) + 2/3*E(3)^2
sage: f * f.inverse()
1


Conjugation and Galois conjugates:

sage: f.conjugate()
E(3) + 2*E(3)^2

sage: f.galois_conjugates()
[2*E(3) + E(3)^2, E(3) + 2*E(3)^2]
sage: f.norm_of_galois_extension()
3


One can create matrices and polynomials:

sage: m = matrix(2,[E(3),1,1,E(4)]); m
[E(3)    1]
[   1 E(4)]
sage: m.parent()
Full MatrixSpace of 2 by 2 dense matrices over Universal Cyclotomic Field
sage: m**2
[                       -E(3) E(12)^4 - E(12)^7 - E(12)^11]
[E(12)^4 - E(12)^7 - E(12)^11                            0]

sage: m.charpoly()
x^2 + (-E(12)^4 + E(12)^7 + E(12)^11)*x + E(12)^4 + E(12)^7 + E(12)^8

sage: m.echelon_form()
[1 0]
[0 1]

sage: m.pivots()
(0, 1)

sage: m.rank()
2

sage: R.<x> = PolynomialRing(UniversalCyclotomicField(), 'x')
sage: E(3) * x - 1
E(3)*x - 1


AUTHORS:

• Christian Stump (2013): initial Sage version (see trac ticket #8327)
• Vincent Delecroix (2015): complete rewriting using libgap (see trac ticket #18152)
• Sebastian Oehms (2018): deleting the method is_finite since it returned the wrong result (see trac ticket #25686)
• Sebastian Oehms (2019): add _factor_univariate_polynomial() (see trac ticket #28631)
sage.rings.universal_cyclotomic_field.E(n, k=1)

Return the n-th root of unity as an element of the universal cyclotomic field.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(3)
E(3)
sage: E(3) + E(5)
-E(15)^2 - 2*E(15)^8 - E(15)^11 - E(15)^13 - E(15)^14

sage.rings.universal_cyclotomic_field.UCF_sqrt_int(N, UCF)

Return the square root of the integer N.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.rings.universal_cyclotomic_field import UCF_sqrt_int
sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField()
sage: UCF_sqrt_int(0, UCF)
0
sage: UCF_sqrt_int(1, UCF)
1
sage: UCF_sqrt_int(-1, UCF)
E(4)
sage: UCF_sqrt_int(2, UCF)
E(8) - E(8)^3
sage: UCF_sqrt_int(-2, UCF)
E(8) + E(8)^3

class sage.rings.universal_cyclotomic_field.UCFtoQQbar(UCF)

Conversion to QQbar.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField()
sage: QQbar(UCF.gen(3))
-0.500000000000000? + 0.866025403784439?*I

sage: CC(UCF.gen(7,2) + UCF.gen(7,6))
0.400968867902419 + 0.193096429713794*I

sage: complex(E(7)+E(7,2))
(0.40096886790241915+1.7567593946498534j)
sage: complex(UCF.one()/2)
(0.5+0j)

class sage.rings.universal_cyclotomic_field.UniversalCyclotomicField(names=None)

The universal cyclotomic field.

The universal cyclotomic field is the infinite algebraic extension of $$\QQ$$ generated by the roots of unity. It is also the maximal Abelian extension of $$\QQ$$ in the sense that any Abelian Galois extension of $$\QQ$$ is also a subfield of the universal cyclotomic field.

Element
algebraic_closure()

The algebraic closure.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UniversalCyclotomicField().algebraic_closure()
Algebraic Field

an_element()

Return an element.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UniversalCyclotomicField().an_element()
E(5) - 3*E(5)^2

characteristic()

Return the characteristic.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UniversalCyclotomicField().characteristic()
0
sage: parent(_)
Integer Ring

degree()

Return the degree of self as a field extension over the Rationals.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField()
sage: UCF.degree()
+Infinity

gen(n, k=1)

Return the standard primitive n-th root of unity.

If k is not None, return the k-th power of it.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField()
sage: UCF.gen(15)
E(15)
sage: UCF.gen(7,3)
E(7)^3
sage: UCF.gen(4,2)
-1


There is an alias zeta also available:

sage: UCF.zeta(6)
-E(3)^2

is_exact()

Return True as this is an exact ring (i.e. not numerical).

EXAMPLES:

sage: UniversalCyclotomicField().is_exact()
True

one()

Return one.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField()
sage: UCF.one()
1
sage: parent(_)
Universal Cyclotomic Field

some_elements()

Return a tuple of some elements in the universal cyclotomic field.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UniversalCyclotomicField().some_elements()
(0, 1, -1, E(3), E(7) - 2/3*E(7)^2)
sage: all(parent(x) is UniversalCyclotomicField() for x in _)
True

zero()

Return zero.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField()
sage: UCF.zero()
0
sage: parent(_)
Universal Cyclotomic Field

zeta(n, k=1)

Return the standard primitive n-th root of unity.

If k is not None, return the k-th power of it.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField()
sage: UCF.gen(15)
E(15)
sage: UCF.gen(7,3)
E(7)^3
sage: UCF.gen(4,2)
-1


There is an alias zeta also available:

sage: UCF.zeta(6)
-E(3)^2

class sage.rings.universal_cyclotomic_field.UniversalCyclotomicFieldElement(parent, obj)

INPUT:

• parent – a universal cyclotomic field
• obj – a libgap element (either an integer, a rational or a cyclotomic)
abs()

Return the absolute value (or complex modulus) of self.

The absolute value is returned as an algebraic real number.

EXAMPLES:

sage: f = 5/2*E(3)+E(5)/7
sage: f.abs()
2.597760303873084?
sage: abs(f)
2.597760303873084?
sage: a = E(8)
sage: abs(a)
1
sage: v, w = vector([a]), vector([a, a])
sage: v.norm(), w.norm()
(1, 1.414213562373095?)
sage: v.norm().parent()
Algebraic Real Field

additive_order()

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField()
0
+Infinity
+Infinity

conductor()

Return the conductor of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(3).conductor()
3
sage: (E(5) + E(3)).conductor()
15

conjugate()

Return the complex conjugate.

EXAMPLES:

sage: (E(7) + 3*E(7,2) - 5 * E(7,3)).conjugate()
-5*E(7)^4 + 3*E(7)^5 + E(7)^6

denominator()

Return the denominator of this element.

EXAMPLES:

sage: a = E(5) + 1/2*E(5,2) + 1/3*E(5,3)
sage: a
E(5) + 1/2*E(5)^2 + 1/3*E(5)^3
sage: a.denominator()
6
sage: parent(_)
Integer Ring

galois_conjugates(n=None)

Return the Galois conjugates of self.

INPUT:

• n – an optional integer. If provided, return the orbit of the Galois group of the n-th cyclotomic field over $$\QQ$$. Note that n must be such that this element belongs to the n-th cyclotomic field (in other words, it must be a multiple of the conductor).

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(6).galois_conjugates()
[-E(3)^2, -E(3)]

sage: E(6).galois_conjugates()
[-E(3)^2, -E(3)]

sage: (E(9,2) - E(9,4)).galois_conjugates()
[E(9)^2 - E(9)^4,
E(9)^2 + E(9)^4 + E(9)^5,
-E(9)^2 - E(9)^5 - E(9)^7,
-E(9)^2 - E(9)^4 - E(9)^7,
E(9)^4 + E(9)^5 + E(9)^7,
-E(9)^5 + E(9)^7]

sage: zeta = E(5)
sage: zeta.galois_conjugates(5)
[E(5), E(5)^2, E(5)^3, E(5)^4]
sage: zeta.galois_conjugates(10)
[E(5), E(5)^3, E(5)^2, E(5)^4]
sage: zeta.galois_conjugates(15)
[E(5), E(5)^2, E(5)^4, E(5)^2, E(5)^3, E(5), E(5)^3, E(5)^4]

sage: zeta.galois_conjugates(17)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: n = 17 must be a multiple of the conductor (5)

imag()

Return the imaginary part of this element.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(3).imag()
-1/2*E(12)^7 + 1/2*E(12)^11
sage: E(5).imag()
1/2*E(20) - 1/2*E(20)^9

sage: a = E(5) - 2*E(3)
sage: AA(a.imag()) == QQbar(a).imag()
True

imag_part()

Return the imaginary part of this element.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(3).imag()
-1/2*E(12)^7 + 1/2*E(12)^11
sage: E(5).imag()
1/2*E(20) - 1/2*E(20)^9

sage: a = E(5) - 2*E(3)
sage: AA(a.imag()) == QQbar(a).imag()
True

inverse()
is_integral()

Return whether self is an algebraic integer.

This just wraps IsIntegralCyclotomic from GAP.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(6).is_integral()
True
sage: (E(4)/2).is_integral()
False

is_rational()

Test whether this element is a rational number.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(3).is_rational()
False
sage: (E(3) + E(3,2)).is_rational()
True

is_real()

Test whether this element is real.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(3).is_real()
False
sage: (E(3) + E(3,2)).is_real()
True

sage: a = E(3) - 2*E(7)
sage: a.real_part().is_real()
True
sage: a.imag_part().is_real()
True

is_square()

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField()
sage: UCF(5/2).is_square()
True

sage: UCF.zeta(7,3).is_square()
True

sage: (2 + UCF.zeta(3)).is_square()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError: is_square() not fully implemented for elements of Universal Cyclotomic Field

minpoly(var='x')

The minimal polynomial of self element over $$\QQ$$.

INPUT:

• var – (optional, default ‘x’) the name of the variable to use.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF.<E> = UniversalCyclotomicField()

sage: UCF(4).minpoly()
x - 4

sage: UCF(4).minpoly(var='y')
y - 4

sage: E(3).minpoly()
x^2 + x + 1

sage: E(3).minpoly(var='y')
y^2 + y + 1


Todo

Polynomials with libgap currently does not implement a .sage() method (see trac ticket #18266). It would be faster/safer to not use string to construct the polynomial.

multiplicative_order()

Return the multiplicative order.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(5).multiplicative_order()
5
sage: (E(5) + E(12)).multiplicative_order()
+Infinity
sage: UniversalCyclotomicField().zero().multiplicative_order()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
GAPError: Error, argument must be nonzero

norm_of_galois_extension()

Return the norm as a Galois extension of $$\QQ$$, which is given by the product of all galois_conjugates.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(3).norm_of_galois_extension()
1
sage: E(6).norm_of_galois_extension()
1
sage: (E(2) + E(3)).norm_of_galois_extension()
3
sage: parent(_)
Integer Ring

real()

Return the real part of this element.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(3).real()
-1/2
sage: E(5).real()
1/2*E(5) + 1/2*E(5)^4

sage: a = E(5) - 2*E(3)
sage: AA(a.real()) == QQbar(a).real()
True

real_part()

Return the real part of this element.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E(3).real()
-1/2
sage: E(5).real()
1/2*E(5) + 1/2*E(5)^4

sage: a = E(5) - 2*E(3)
sage: AA(a.real()) == QQbar(a).real()
True

sqrt(extend=True, all=False)

Return a square root of self.

With default options, the output is an element of the universal cyclotomic field when this element is expressed via a single root of unity (including rational numbers). Otherwise, return an algebraic number.

INPUT:

• extend – bool (default: True); if True, might return a square root in the algebraic closure of the rationals. If false, return a square root in the universal cyclotomic field or raises an error.
• all – bool (default: False); if True, return a list of all square roots.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField()
sage: UCF(3).sqrt()
E(12)^7 - E(12)^11
sage: (UCF(3).sqrt())**2
3

sage: r = UCF(-1400 / 143).sqrt()
sage: r**2
-1400/143

sage: E(33).sqrt()
-E(33)^17
sage: E(33).sqrt() ** 2
E(33)

sage: (3 * E(5)).sqrt()
-E(60)^11 + E(60)^31
sage: (3 * E(5)).sqrt() ** 2
3*E(5)


Setting all=True you obtain the two square roots in a list:

sage: UCF(3).sqrt(all=True)
[E(12)^7 - E(12)^11, -E(12)^7 + E(12)^11]
sage: (1 + UCF.zeta(5)).sqrt(all=True)
[1.209762576525833? + 0.3930756888787117?*I,
-1.209762576525833? - 0.3930756888787117?*I]


In the following situation, Sage is not (yet) able to compute a square root within the universal cyclotomic field:

sage: (E(5) + E(5, 2)).sqrt()
0.7476743906106103? + 1.029085513635746?*I
sage: (E(5) + E(5, 2)).sqrt(extend=False)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError: sqrt() not fully implemented for elements of Universal Cyclotomic Field

to_cyclotomic_field(R=None)

Return this element as an element of a cyclotomic field.

EXAMPLES:

sage: UCF = UniversalCyclotomicField()

sage: UCF.gen(3).to_cyclotomic_field()
zeta3
sage: UCF.gen(3,2).to_cyclotomic_field()
-zeta3 - 1

sage: CF = CyclotomicField(5)
sage: CF(E(5)) # indirect doctest
zeta5

sage: CF = CyclotomicField(7)
sage: CF(E(5)) # indirect doctest
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Cannot coerce zeta5 into Cyclotomic Field of order 7 and
degree 6

sage: CF = CyclotomicField(10)
sage: CF(E(5)) # indirect doctest
zeta10^2


Matrices are correctly dealt with:

sage: M = Matrix(UCF,2,[E(3),E(4),E(5),E(6)]); M
[   E(3)    E(4)]
[   E(5) -E(3)^2]

sage: Matrix(CyclotomicField(60),M) # indirect doctest
[zeta60^10 - 1     zeta60^15]
[    zeta60^12     zeta60^10]


Using a non-standard embedding:

sage: CF = CyclotomicField(5,embedding=CC(exp(4*pi*i/5)))
sage: x = E(5)
sage: CC(x)
0.309016994374947 + 0.951056516295154*I
sage: CC(CF(x))
0.309016994374947 + 0.951056516295154*I


Test that the bug reported in trac ticket #19912 has been fixed:

sage: a = 1+E(4); a
1 + E(4)
sage: a.to_cyclotomic_field()
zeta4 + 1

sage.rings.universal_cyclotomic_field.late_import()

This function avoids importing libgap on startup. It is called once through the constructor of UniversalCyclotomicField.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.rings.universal_cyclotomic_field as ucf
sage: _ = UniversalCyclotomicField()   # indirect doctest
sage: ucf.libgap is None               # indirect doctest
False