# Differentiable Manifolds¶

Given a non-discrete topological field $$K$$ (in most applications, $$K = \RR$$ or $$K = \CC$$; see however [Ser1992] for $$K = \QQ_p$$ and [Ber2008] for other fields), a differentiable manifold over $$K$$ is a topological manifold $$M$$ over $$K$$ equipped with an atlas whose transitions maps are of class $$C^k$$ (i.e. $$k$$-times continuously differentiable) for a fixed positive integer $$k$$ (possibly $$k=\infty$$). $$M$$ is then called a $$C^k$$-manifold over $$K$$.

Note that

• if the mention of $$K$$ is omitted, then $$K=\RR$$ is assumed;
• if $$K=\CC$$, any $$C^k$$-manifold with $$k\geq 1$$ is actually a $$C^\infty$$-manifold (even an analytic manifold);
• if $$K=\RR$$, any $$C^k$$-manifold with $$k\geq 1$$ admits a compatible $$C^\infty$$-structure (Whitney’s smoothing theorem).

Differentiable manifolds are implemented via the class DifferentiableManifold. Open subsets of differentiable manifolds are also implemented via DifferentiableManifold, since they are differentiable manifolds by themselves.

The user interface is provided by the generic function Manifold(), with the argument structure set to 'differentiable' and the argument diff_degree set to $$k$$, or the argument structure set to 'smooth' (the default value).

Example 1: the 2-sphere as a differentiable manifold of dimension 2 over $$\RR$$

One starts by declaring $$S^2$$ as a 2-dimensional differentiable manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'S^2')
sage: M
2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2

Since the base topological field has not been specified in the argument list of Manifold, $$\RR$$ is assumed:

sage: M.base_field()
Real Field with 53 bits of precision
sage: dim(M)
2

By default, the created object is a smooth manifold:

sage: M.diff_degree()
+Infinity

Let us consider the complement of a point, the “North pole” say; this is an open subset of $$S^2$$, which we call $$U$$:

sage: U = M.open_subset('U'); U
Open subset U of the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2

A standard chart on $$U$$ is provided by the stereographic projection from the North pole to the equatorial plane:

sage: stereoN.<x,y> = U.chart(); stereoN
Chart (U, (x, y))

Thanks to the operator <x,y> on the left-hand side, the coordinates declared in a chart (here $$x$$ and $$y$$), are accessible by their names; they are Sage’s symbolic variables:

sage: y
y
sage: type(y)
<type 'sage.symbolic.expression.Expression'>

The South pole is the point of coordinates $$(x,y)=(0,0)$$ in the above chart:

sage: S = U.point((0,0), chart=stereoN, name='S'); S
Point S on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2

Let us call $$V$$ the open subset that is the complement of the South pole and let us introduce on it the chart induced by the stereographic projection from the South pole to the equatorial plane:

sage: V = M.open_subset('V'); V
Open subset V of the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: stereoS.<u,v> = V.chart(); stereoS
Chart (V, (u, v))

The North pole is the point of coordinates $$(u,v)=(0,0)$$ in this chart:

sage: N = V.point((0,0), chart=stereoS, name='N'); N
Point N on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2

To fully construct the manifold, we declare that it is the union of $$U$$ and $$V$$:

sage: M.declare_union(U,V)

and we provide the transition map between the charts stereoN = $$(U, (x, y))$$ and stereoS = $$(V, (u, v))$$, denoting by $$W$$ the intersection of $$U$$ and $$V$$ ($$W$$ is the subset of $$U$$ defined by $$x^2+y^2\not=0$$, as well as the subset of $$V$$ defined by $$u^2+v^2\not=0$$):

sage: stereoN_to_S = stereoN.transition_map(stereoS,
....:                [x/(x^2+y^2), y/(x^2+y^2)], intersection_name='W',
....:                restrictions1= x^2+y^2!=0, restrictions2= u^2+v^2!=0)
sage: stereoN_to_S
Change of coordinates from Chart (W, (x, y)) to Chart (W, (u, v))
sage: stereoN_to_S.display()
u = x/(x^2 + y^2)
v = y/(x^2 + y^2)

We give the name W to the Python variable representing $$W=U\cap V$$:

sage: W = U.intersection(V)

The inverse of the transition map is computed by the method inverse():

sage: stereoN_to_S.inverse()
Change of coordinates from Chart (W, (u, v)) to Chart (W, (x, y))
sage: stereoN_to_S.inverse().display()
x = u/(u^2 + v^2)
y = v/(u^2 + v^2)

At this stage, we have four open subsets on $$S^2$$:

sage: M.list_of_subsets()
[2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2,
Open subset U of the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2,
Open subset V of the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2,
Open subset W of the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2]

$$W$$ is the open subset that is the complement of the two poles:

sage: N in W or S in W
False

The North pole lies in $$V$$ and the South pole in $$U$$:

sage: N in V, N in U
(True, False)
sage: S in U, S in V
(True, False)

The manifold’s (user) atlas contains four charts, two of them being restrictions of charts to a smaller domain:

sage: M.atlas()
[Chart (U, (x, y)), Chart (V, (u, v)), Chart (W, (x, y)), Chart (W, (u, v))]

Let us consider the point of coordinates (1,2) in the chart stereoN:

sage: p = M.point((1,2), chart=stereoN, name='p'); p
Point p on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: p.parent()
2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: p in W
True

The coordinates of $$p$$ in the chart stereoS are computed by letting the chart act on the point:

sage: stereoS(p)
(1/5, 2/5)

Given the definition of $$p$$, we have of course:

sage: stereoN(p)
(1, 2)

Similarly:

sage: stereoS(N)
(0, 0)
sage: stereoN(S)
(0, 0)

A differentiable scalar field on the sphere:

sage: f = M.scalar_field({stereoN: atan(x^2+y^2), stereoS: pi/2-atan(u^2+v^2)},
....:                    name='f')
sage: f
Scalar field f on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: f.display()
f: S^2 --> R
on U: (x, y) |--> arctan(x^2 + y^2)
on V: (u, v) |--> 1/2*pi - arctan(u^2 + v^2)
sage: f(p)
arctan(5)
sage: f(N)
1/2*pi
sage: f(S)
0
sage: f.parent()
Algebra of differentiable scalar fields on the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold S^2
sage: f.parent().category()
Category of commutative algebras over Symbolic Ring

A differentiable manifold has a default vector frame, which, unless otherwise specified, is the coordinate frame associated with the first defined chart:

sage: M.default_frame()
Coordinate frame (U, (d/dx,d/dy))
sage: latex(M.default_frame())
\left(U, \left(\frac{\partial}{\partial x },\frac{\partial}{\partial y }\right)\right)
sage: M.default_frame() is stereoN.frame()
True

A vector field on the sphere:

sage: w = M.vector_field('w')
sage: w[stereoN.frame(), :] = [x, y]
sage: w.display() # display in the default frame (stereoN.frame())
w = x d/dx + y d/dy
sage: w.display(stereoS.frame())
w = -u d/du - v d/dv
sage: w.parent()
Module X(S^2) of vector fields on the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold S^2
sage: w.parent().category()
Category of modules over Algebra of differentiable scalar fields on the
2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2

Vector fields act on scalar fields:

sage: w(f)
Scalar field w(f) on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: w(f).display()
w(f): S^2 --> R
on U: (x, y) |--> 2*(x^2 + y^2)/(x^4 + 2*x^2*y^2 + y^4 + 1)
on V: (u, v) |--> 2*(u^2 + v^2)/(u^4 + 2*u^2*v^2 + v^4 + 1)
sage: w(f) == f.differential()(w)
True

The value of the vector field at point $$p$$ is a vector tangent to the sphere:

sage: w.at(p)
Tangent vector w at Point p on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: w.at(p).display()
w = d/dx + 2 d/dy
sage: w.at(p).parent()
Tangent space at Point p on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2

A 1-form on the sphere:

sage: df = f.differential() ; df
1-form df on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: df.display()
df = 2*x/(x^4 + 2*x^2*y^2 + y^4 + 1) dx + 2*y/(x^4 + 2*x^2*y^2 + y^4 + 1) dy
sage: df.display(stereoS.frame())
df = -2*u/(u^4 + 2*u^2*v^2 + v^4 + 1) du - 2*v/(u^4 + 2*u^2*v^2 + v^4 + 1) dv
sage: df.parent()
Module Omega^1(S^2) of 1-forms on the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold S^2
sage: df.parent().category()
Category of modules over Algebra of differentiable scalar fields on the
2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2

The value of the 1-form at point $$p$$ is a linear form on the tangent space at $$p$$:

sage: df.at(p)
Linear form df on the Tangent space at Point p on the 2-dimensional
differentiable manifold S^2
sage: df.at(p).display()
df = 1/13 dx + 2/13 dy
sage: df.at(p).parent()
Dual of the Tangent space at Point p on the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold S^2

Example 2: the Riemann sphere as a differentiable manifold of dimension 1 over $$\CC$$

We declare the Riemann sphere $$\CC^*$$ as a 1-dimensional differentiable manifold over $$\CC$$:

sage: M = Manifold(1, 'C*', field='complex'); M
1-dimensional complex manifold C*

We introduce a first open subset, which is actually $$\CC = \CC^*\setminus\{\infty\}$$ if we interpret $$\CC^*$$ as the Alexandroff one-point compactification of $$\CC$$:

sage: U = M.open_subset('U')

A natural chart on $$U$$ is then nothing but the identity map of $$\CC$$, hence we denote the associated coordinate by $$z$$:

sage: Z.<z> = U.chart()

The origin of the complex plane is the point of coordinate $$z=0$$:

sage: O = U.point((0,), chart=Z, name='O'); O
Point O on the 1-dimensional complex manifold C*

Another open subset of $$\CC^*$$ is $$V = \CC^*\setminus\{O\}$$:

sage: V = M.open_subset('V')

We define a chart on $$V$$ such that the point at infinity is the point of coordinate 0 in this chart:

sage: W.<w> = V.chart(); W
Chart (V, (w,))
sage: inf = M.point((0,), chart=W, name='inf', latex_name=r'\infty')
sage: inf
Point inf on the 1-dimensional complex manifold C*

To fully construct the Riemann sphere, we declare that it is the union of $$U$$ and $$V$$:

sage: M.declare_union(U,V)

and we provide the transition map between the two charts as $$w=1/z$$ on on $$A = U\cap V$$:

sage: Z_to_W = Z.transition_map(W, 1/z, intersection_name='A',
....:                           restrictions1= z!=0, restrictions2= w!=0)
sage: Z_to_W
Change of coordinates from Chart (A, (z,)) to Chart (A, (w,))
sage: Z_to_W.display()
w = 1/z
sage: Z_to_W.inverse()
Change of coordinates from Chart (A, (w,)) to Chart (A, (z,))
sage: Z_to_W.inverse().display()
z = 1/w

Let consider the complex number $$i$$ as a point of the Riemann sphere:

sage: i = M((I,), chart=Z, name='i'); i
Point i on the 1-dimensional complex manifold C*

Its coordinates with respect to the charts Z and W are:

sage: Z(i)
(I,)
sage: W(i)
(-I,)

and we have:

sage: i in U
True
sage: i in V
True

The following subsets and charts have been defined:

sage: M.list_of_subsets()
[Open subset A of the 1-dimensional complex manifold C*,
1-dimensional complex manifold C*,
Open subset U of the 1-dimensional complex manifold C*,
Open subset V of the 1-dimensional complex manifold C*]
sage: M.atlas()
[Chart (U, (z,)), Chart (V, (w,)), Chart (A, (z,)), Chart (A, (w,))]

A constant map $$\CC^* \rightarrow \CC$$:

sage: f = M.constant_scalar_field(3+2*I, name='f'); f
Scalar field f on the 1-dimensional complex manifold C*
sage: f.display()
f: C* --> C
on U: z |--> 2*I + 3
on V: w |--> 2*I + 3
sage: f(O)
2*I + 3
sage: f(i)
2*I + 3
sage: f(inf)
2*I + 3
sage: f.parent()
Algebra of differentiable scalar fields on the 1-dimensional complex
manifold C*
sage: f.parent().category()
Category of commutative algebras over Symbolic Ring

A vector field on the Riemann sphere:

sage: v = M.vector_field(name='v')
sage: v[Z.frame(), 0] = z^2
sage: v.display(Z.frame())
v = z^2 d/dz
sage: v.display(W.frame())
v = -d/dw
sage: v.parent()
Module X(C*) of vector fields on the 1-dimensional complex manifold C*

The vector field $$v$$ acting on the scalar field $$f$$:

sage: v(f)
Scalar field v(f) on the 1-dimensional complex manifold C*

Since $$f$$ is constant, $$v(f)$$ is vanishing:

sage: v(f).display()
v(f): C* --> C
on U: z |--> 0
on V: w |--> 0

The value of the vector field $$v$$ at the point $$\infty$$ is a vector tangent to the Riemann sphere:

sage: v.at(inf)
Tangent vector v at Point inf on the 1-dimensional complex manifold C*
sage: v.at(inf).display()
v = -d/dw
sage: v.at(inf).parent()
Tangent space at Point inf on the 1-dimensional complex manifold C*

AUTHORS:

• Eric Gourgoulhon (2015): initial version
• Travis Scrimshaw (2016): review tweaks

REFERENCES:

class sage.manifolds.differentiable.manifold.DifferentiableManifold(n, name, field, structure, base_manifold=None, diff_degree=+Infinity, latex_name=None, start_index=0, category=None, unique_tag=None)

Differentiable manifold over a topological field $$K$$.

Given a non-discrete topological field $$K$$ (in most applications, $$K = \RR$$ or $$K = \CC$$; see however [Ser1992] for $$K = \QQ_p$$ and [Ber2008] for other fields), a differentiable manifold over $$K$$ is a topological manifold $$M$$ over $$K$$ equipped with an atlas whose transitions maps are of class $$C^k$$ (i.e. $$k$$-times continuously differentiable) for a fixed positive integer $$k$$ (possibly $$k=\infty$$). $$M$$ is then called a $$C^k$$-manifold over $$K$$.

Note that

• if the mention of $$K$$ is omitted, then $$K=\RR$$ is assumed;
• if $$K=\CC$$, any $$C^k$$-manifold with $$k\geq 1$$ is actually a $$C^\infty$$-manifold (even an analytic manifold);
• if $$K=\RR$$, any $$C^k$$-manifold with $$k\geq 1$$ admits a compatible $$C^\infty$$-structure (Whitney’s smoothing theorem).

INPUT:

• n – positive integer; dimension of the manifold
• name – string; name (symbol) given to the manifold
• field – field $$K$$ on which the manifold is defined; allowed values are
• 'real' or an object of type RealField (e.g., RR) for a manifold over $$\RR$$
• 'complex' or an object of type ComplexField (e.g., CC) for a manifold over $$\CC$$
• an object in the category of topological fields (see Fields and TopologicalSpaces) for other types of manifolds
• structure – manifold structure (see DifferentialStructure or RealDifferentialStructure)
• ambient – (default: None) if not None, must be a differentiable manifold; the created object is then an open subset of ambient
• diff_degree – (default: infinity) degree $$k$$ of differentiability
• latex_name – (default: None) string; LaTeX symbol to denote the manifold; if none is provided, it is set to name
• start_index – (default: 0) integer; lower value of the range of indices used for “indexed objects” on the manifold, e.g. coordinates in a chart
• category – (default: None) to specify the category; if None, Manifolds(field).Differentiable() (or Manifolds(field).Smooth() if diff_degree = infinity) is assumed (see the category Manifolds)
• unique_tag – (default: None) tag used to force the construction of a new object when all the other arguments have been used previously (without unique_tag, the UniqueRepresentation behavior inherited from ManifoldSubset, via TopologicalManifold, would return the previously constructed object corresponding to these arguments).

EXAMPLES:

A 4-dimensional differentiable manifold (over $$\RR$$):

sage: M = Manifold(4, 'M', latex_name=r'\mathcal{M}'); M
4-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: type(M)
<class 'sage.manifolds.differentiable.manifold.DifferentiableManifold_with_category'>
sage: latex(M)
\mathcal{M}
sage: dim(M)
4

Since the base field has not been specified, $$\RR$$ has been assumed:

sage: M.base_field()
Real Field with 53 bits of precision

Since the degree of differentiability has not been specified, the default value, $$C^\infty$$, has been assumed:

sage: M.diff_degree()
+Infinity

The input parameter start_index defines the range of indices on the manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(4, 'M')
sage: list(M.irange())
[0, 1, 2, 3]
sage: M = Manifold(4, 'M', start_index=1)
sage: list(M.irange())
[1, 2, 3, 4]
sage: list(Manifold(4, 'M', start_index=-2).irange())
[-2, -1, 0, 1]

A complex manifold:

sage: N = Manifold(3, 'N', field='complex'); N
3-dimensional complex manifold N

A differentiable manifold over $$\QQ_5$$, the field of 5-adic numbers:

sage: N = Manifold(2, 'N', field=Qp(5)); N
2-dimensional differentiable manifold N over the 5-adic Field with
capped relative precision 20

A differentiable manifold is of course a topological manifold:

sage: isinstance(M, sage.manifolds.manifold.TopologicalManifold)
True
sage: isinstance(N, sage.manifolds.manifold.TopologicalManifold)
True

A differentiable manifold is a Sage parent object, in the category of differentiable (here smooth) manifolds over a given topological field (see Manifolds):

sage: isinstance(M, Parent)
True
sage: M.category()
Category of smooth manifolds over Real Field with 53 bits of precision
sage: from sage.categories.manifolds import Manifolds
sage: M.category() is Manifolds(RR).Smooth()
True
sage: M.category() is Manifolds(M.base_field()).Smooth()
True
sage: M in Manifolds(RR).Smooth()
True
sage: N in Manifolds(Qp(5)).Smooth()
True

The corresponding Sage elements are points:

sage: X.<t, x, y, z> = M.chart()
sage: p = M.an_element(); p
Point on the 4-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: p.parent()
4-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: M.is_parent_of(p)
True
sage: p in M
True

The manifold’s points are instances of class ManifoldPoint:

sage: isinstance(p, sage.manifolds.point.ManifoldPoint)
True

Since an open subset of a differentiable manifold $$M$$ is itself a differentiable manifold, open subsets of $$M$$ have all attributes of manifolds:

sage: U = M.open_subset('U', coord_def={X: t>0}); U
Open subset U of the 4-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: U.category()
Join of Category of subobjects of sets and Category of smooth manifolds
over Real Field with 53 bits of precision
sage: U.base_field() == M.base_field()
True
sage: dim(U) == dim(M)
True

The manifold passes all the tests of the test suite relative to its category:

sage: TestSuite(M).run()
affine_connection(name, latex_name=None)

Define an affine connection on the manifold.

See AffineConnection for a complete documentation.

INPUT:

• name – name given to the affine connection
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the affine connection

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Affine connection on an open subset of a 3-dimensional smooth manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M', start_index=1)
sage: A = M.open_subset('A', latex_name=r'\mathcal{A}')
sage: nab = A.affine_connection('nabla', r'\nabla') ; nab
Affine connection nabla on the Open subset A of the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M

AffineConnection for more examples.

automorphism_field(name=None, latex_name=None, dest_map=None)

Define a field of automorphisms (invertible endomorphisms in each tangent space) on self.

Via the argument dest_map, it is possible to let the field take its values on another manifold. More precisely, if $$M$$ is the current manifold, $$N$$ a differentiable manifold and $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$ a differentiable map, a field of automorphisms along $$M$$ with values on $$N$$ is a differentiable map

$t:\ M \longrightarrow T^{(1,1)} N$

($$T^{(1,1)} N$$ being the tensor bundle of type $$(1,1)$$ over $$N$$) such that

$\forall p \in M,\ t(p) \in \mathrm{GL}\left(T_{\Phi(p)} N \right),$

where $$\mathrm{GL}\left(T_{\Phi(p)} N \right)$$ is the general linear group of the tangent space $$T_{\Phi(p)} N$$.

The standard case of a field of automorphisms on $$M$$ corresponds to $$N = M$$ and $$\Phi = \mathrm{Id}_M$$. Other common cases are $$\Phi$$ being an immersion and $$\Phi$$ being a curve in $$N$$ ($$M$$ is then an open interval of $$\RR$$).

AutomorphismField for complete documentation.

INPUT:

• name – (default: None) name given to the field
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the field; if none is provided, the LaTeX symbol is set to name
• dest_map – (default: None) the destination map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of a field of automorphisms on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

A field of automorphisms on a 3-dimensional manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(3,'M')
sage: c_xyz.<x,y,z> = M.chart()
sage: a = M.automorphism_field('A') ; a
Field of tangent-space automorphisms A on the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: a.parent()
General linear group of the Free module X(M) of vector fields on
the 3-dimensional differentiable manifold M

For more examples, see AutomorphismField.

automorphism_field_group(dest_map=None)

Return the group of tangent-space automorphism fields defined on self, possibly with values in another manifold, as a module over the algebra of scalar fields defined on self.

If $$M$$ is the current manifold and $$\Phi$$ a differentiable map $$\Phi: M \rightarrow N$$, where $$N$$ is a differentiable manifold, this method called with dest_map being $$\Phi$$ returns the general linear group $$\mathrm{GL}(\mathfrak{X}(M, \Phi))$$ of the module $$\mathfrak{X}(M, \Phi)$$ of vector fields along $$M$$ with values in $$\Phi(M) \subset N$$.

INPUT:

• dest_map – (default: None) destination map, i.e. a differentiable map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$, where $$M$$ is the current manifold and $$N$$ a differentiable manifold; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map, otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Group of tangent-space automorphism fields of a 2-dimensional differentiable manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: M.automorphism_field_group()
General linear group of the Module X(M) of vector fields on the
2-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: M.automorphism_field_group().category()
Category of groups

For more examples, see AutomorphismFieldParalGroup and AutomorphismFieldGroup.

change_of_frame(frame1, frame2)

Return a change of vector frames defined on self.

INPUT:

• frame1 – vector frame 1
• frame2 – vector frame 2

OUTPUT:

• a AutomorphismField representing, at each point, the vector space automorphism $$P$$ that relates frame 1, $$(e_i)$$ say, to frame 2, $$(n_i)$$ say, according to $$n_i = P(e_i)$$

EXAMPLES:

Change of vector frames induced by a change of coordinates:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: c_xy.<x,y> = M.chart()
sage: c_uv.<u,v> = M.chart()
sage: c_xy.transition_map(c_uv, (x+y, x-y))
Change of coordinates from Chart (M, (x, y)) to Chart (M, (u, v))
sage: M.change_of_frame(c_xy.frame(), c_uv.frame())
Field of tangent-space automorphisms on the 2-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: M.change_of_frame(c_xy.frame(), c_uv.frame())[:]
[ 1/2  1/2]
[ 1/2 -1/2]
sage: M.change_of_frame(c_uv.frame(), c_xy.frame())
Field of tangent-space automorphisms on the 2-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: M.change_of_frame(c_uv.frame(), c_xy.frame())[:]
[ 1  1]
[ 1 -1]
sage: M.change_of_frame(c_uv.frame(), c_xy.frame()) == \
....:       M.change_of_frame(c_xy.frame(), c_uv.frame()).inverse()
True

In the present example, the manifold $$M$$ is parallelizable, so that the module $$X(M)$$ of vector fields on $$M$$ is free. A change of frame on $$M$$ is then identical to a change of basis in $$X(M)$$:

sage: XM = M.vector_field_module() ; XM
Free module X(M) of vector fields on the 2-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: XM.print_bases()
Bases defined on the Free module X(M) of vector fields on the
2-dimensional differentiable manifold M:
- (M, (d/dx,d/dy)) (default basis)
- (M, (d/du,d/dv))
sage: XM.change_of_basis(c_xy.frame(), c_uv.frame())
Field of tangent-space automorphisms on the 2-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: M.change_of_frame(c_xy.frame(), c_uv.frame()) is \
....:  XM.change_of_basis(c_xy.frame(), c_uv.frame())
True
changes_of_frame()

Return all the changes of vector frames defined on self.

OUTPUT:

• dictionary of fields of tangent-space automorphisms representing the changes of frames, the keys being the pair of frames

EXAMPLES:

Let us consider a first vector frame on a 2-dimensional differentiable manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: X.<x,y> = M.chart()
sage: e = X.frame(); e
Coordinate frame (M, (d/dx,d/dy))

At this stage, the dictionary of changes of frame is empty:

sage: M.changes_of_frame()
{}

We introduce a second frame on the manifold, relating it to frame e by a field of tangent space automorphisms:

sage: a = M.automorphism_field(name='a')
sage: a[:] = [[-y, x], [1, 2]]
sage: f = e.new_frame(a, 'f'); f
Vector frame (M, (f_0,f_1))

Then we have:

sage: M.changes_of_frame()  # random (dictionary output)
{(Coordinate frame (M, (d/dx,d/dy)),
Vector frame (M, (f_0,f_1))): Field of tangent-space
automorphisms on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M,
(Vector frame (M, (f_0,f_1)),
Coordinate frame (M, (d/dx,d/dy))): Field of tangent-space
automorphisms on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M}

Some checks:

sage: M.changes_of_frame()[(e,f)] == a
True
sage: M.changes_of_frame()[(f,e)] == a^(-1)
True
coframes()

Return the list of coframes defined on open subsets of self.

OUTPUT:

• list of coframes defined on open subsets of self

EXAMPLES:

Coframes on subsets of $$\RR^2$$:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'R^2')
sage: c_cart.<x,y> = M.chart() # Cartesian coordinates on R^2
sage: M.coframes()
[Coordinate coframe (R^2, (dx,dy))]
sage: e = M.vector_frame('e')
sage: M.coframes()
[Coordinate coframe (R^2, (dx,dy)), Coframe (R^2, (e^0,e^1))]
sage: U = M.open_subset('U', coord_def={c_cart: x^2+y^2<1}) # unit disk
sage: U.coframes()
[Coordinate coframe (U, (dx,dy))]
sage: e.restrict(U)
Vector frame (U, (e_0,e_1))
sage: U.coframes()
[Coordinate coframe (U, (dx,dy)), Coframe (U, (e^0,e^1))]
sage: M.coframes()
[Coordinate coframe (R^2, (dx,dy)),
Coframe (R^2, (e^0,e^1)),
Coordinate coframe (U, (dx,dy)),
Coframe (U, (e^0,e^1))]
curve(coord_expression, param, chart=None, name=None, latex_name=None)

Define a differentiable curve in the manifold.

DifferentiableCurve for details.

INPUT:

• coord_expression – either

• (i) a dictionary whose keys are charts on the manifold and values the coordinate expressions (as lists or tuples) of the curve in the given chart
• (ii) a single coordinate expression in a given chart on the manifold, the latter being provided by the argument chart

in both cases, if the dimension of the manifold is 1, a single coordinate expression can be passed instead of a tuple with a single element

• param – a tuple of the type (t, t_min, t_max), where

• t is the curve parameter used in coord_expression;
• t_min is its minimal value;
• t_max its maximal value;

if t_min=-Infinity and t_max=+Infinity, they can be omitted and t can be passed for param instead of the tuple (t, t_min, t_max)

• chart – (default: None) chart on the manifold used for case (ii) above; if None the default chart of the manifold is assumed

• name – (default: None) string; symbol given to the curve

• latex_name – (default: None) string; LaTeX symbol to denote the curve; if none is provided, name will be used

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

The lemniscate of Gerono in the 2-dimensional Euclidean plane:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: X.<x,y> = M.chart()
sage: R.<t> = RealLine()
sage: c = M.curve([sin(t), sin(2*t)/2], (t, 0, 2*pi), name='c') ; c
Curve c in the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M

The same definition with the coordinate expression passed as a dictionary:

sage: c = M.curve({X: [sin(t), sin(2*t)/2]}, (t, 0, 2*pi), name='c') ; c
Curve c in the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M

An example of definition with t_min and t_max omitted: a helix in $$\RR^3$$:

sage: R3 = Manifold(3, 'R^3')
sage: X.<x,y,z> = R3.chart()
sage: c = R3.curve([cos(t), sin(t), t], t, name='c') ; c
Curve c in the 3-dimensional differentiable manifold R^3
sage: c.domain() # check that t is unbounded
Real number line R

DifferentiableCurve for more examples, including plots.

default_frame()

Return the default vector frame defined on self.

By vector frame, it is meant a field on the manifold that provides, at each point $$p$$, a vector basis of the tangent space at $$p$$.

Unless changed via set_default_frame(), the default frame is the first one defined on the manifold, usually implicitely as the coordinate basis associated with the first chart defined on the manifold.

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

The default vector frame is often the coordinate frame associated with the first chart defined on the manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: c_xy.<x,y> = M.chart()
sage: M.default_frame()
Coordinate frame (M, (d/dx,d/dy))
diff_degree()

Return the manifold’s degree of differentiability.

The degree of differentiability is the integer $$k$$ (possibly $$k=\infty$$) such that the manifold is a $$C^k$$-manifold over its base field.

EXAMPLES:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: M.diff_degree()
+Infinity
sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M', structure='differentiable', diff_degree=3)
sage: M.diff_degree()
3
diff_form(degree, name=None, latex_name=None, dest_map=None)

Define a differential form on self.

Via the argument dest_map, it is possible to let the differential form take its values on another manifold. More precisely, if $$M$$ is the current manifold, $$N$$ a differentiable manifold, $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$ a differentiable map and $$p$$ a non-negative integer, a differential form of degree $$p$$ (or $$p$$-form) along $$M$$ with values on $$N$$ is a differentiable map

$t:\ M \longrightarrow T^{(0,p)}N$

($$T^{(0,p)} N$$ being the tensor bundle of type $$(0,p)$$ over $$N$$) such that

$\forall x \in M,\quad t(x) \in \Lambda^p(T^*_{\Phi(x)} N),$

where $$\Lambda^p(T^*_{\Phi(x)} N)$$ is the $$p$$-th exterior power of the dual of the tangent space $$T_{\Phi(x)} N$$.

The standard case of a differential form on $$M$$ corresponds to $$N = M$$ and $$\Phi = \mathrm{Id}_M$$. Other common cases are $$\Phi$$ being an immersion and $$\Phi$$ being a curve in $$N$$ ($$M$$ is then an open interval of $$\RR$$).

For $$p = 1$$, one can use the method one_form() instead.

DiffForm for complete documentation.

INPUT:

• degree – the degree $$p$$ of the differential form (i.e. its tensor rank)
• name – (default: None) name given to the differential form
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the differential form; if none is provided, the LaTeX symbol is set to name
• dest_map – (default: None) the destination map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of a differential form on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

A 2-form on a open subset of a 4-dimensional differentiable manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(4, 'M')
sage: A = M.open_subset('A', latex_name=r'\mathcal{A}'); A
Open subset A of the 4-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: c_xyzt.<x,y,z,t> = A.chart()
sage: f = A.diff_form(2, 'F'); f
2-form F on the Open subset A of the 4-dimensional
differentiable manifold M

See the documentation of class DiffForm for more examples.

diff_form_module(degree, dest_map=None)

Return the set of differential forms of a given degree defined on self, possibly with values in another manifold, as a module over the algebra of scalar fields defined on self.

DiffFormModule for complete documentation.

INPUT:

• degree – positive integer; the degree $$p$$ of the differential forms
• dest_map – (default: None) destination map, i.e. a differentiable map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$, where $$M$$ is the current manifold and $$N$$ a differentiable manifold; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of differential forms on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap

OUTPUT:

• a DiffFormModule (or if $$N$$ is parallelizable, a DiffFormFreeModule) representing the module $$\Omega^p(M,\Phi)$$ of $$p$$-forms on $$M$$ taking values on $$\Phi(M)\subset N$$

EXAMPLES:

Module of 2-forms on a 3-dimensional parallelizable manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M')
sage: X.<x,y,z> = M.chart()
sage: M.diff_form_module(2)
Free module Omega^2(M) of 2-forms on the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: M.diff_form_module(2).category()
Category of finite dimensional modules over Algebra of
differentiable scalar fields on the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: M.diff_form_module(2).base_ring()
Algebra of differentiable scalar fields on the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: M.diff_form_module(2).rank()
3

The outcome is cached:

sage: M.diff_form_module(2) is M.diff_form_module(2)
True
diff_map(codomain, coord_functions=None, chart1=None, chart2=None, name=None, latex_name=None)

Define a differentiable map between the current differentiable manifold and a differentiable manifold over the same topological field.

See DiffMap for a complete documentation.

INPUT:

• codomain – the map codomain (a differentiable manifold over the same topological field as the current differentiable manifold)

• coord_functions – (default: None) if not None, must be either

• (i) a dictionary of the coordinate expressions (as lists (or tuples) of the coordinates of the image expressed in terms of the coordinates of the considered point) with the pairs of charts (chart1, chart2) as keys (chart1 being a chart on the current manifold and chart2 a chart on codomain)
• (ii) a single coordinate expression in a given pair of charts, the latter being provided by the arguments chart1 and chart2

In both cases, if the dimension of the arrival manifold is 1, a single coordinate expression can be passed instead of a tuple with a single element

• chart1 – (default: None; used only in case (ii) above) chart on the current manifold defining the start coordinates involved in coord_functions for case (ii); if none is provided, the coordinates are assumed to refer to the manifold’s default chart

• chart2 – (default: None; used only in case (ii) above) chart on codomain defining the arrival coordinates involved in coord_functions for case (ii); if none is provided, the coordinates are assumed to refer to the default chart of codomain

• name – (default: None) name given to the differentiable map

• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the differentiable map; if none is provided, the LaTeX symbol is set to name

OUTPUT:

• the differentiable map, as an instance of DiffMap

EXAMPLES:

A differentiable map between an open subset of $$S^2$$ covered by regular spherical coordinates and $$\RR^3$$:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'S^2')
sage: U = M.open_subset('U')
sage: c_spher.<th,ph> = U.chart(r'th:(0,pi):\theta ph:(0,2*pi):\phi')
sage: N = Manifold(3, 'R^3', r'\RR^3')
sage: c_cart.<x,y,z> = N.chart()  # Cartesian coord. on R^3
sage: Phi = U.diff_map(N, (sin(th)*cos(ph), sin(th)*sin(ph), cos(th)),
....:                  name='Phi', latex_name=r'\Phi')
sage: Phi
Differentiable map Phi from the Open subset U of the 2-dimensional
differentiable manifold S^2 to the 3-dimensional differentiable
manifold R^3

The same definition, but with a dictionary with pairs of charts as keys (case (i) above):

sage: Phi1 = U.diff_map(N,
....:        {(c_spher, c_cart): (sin(th)*cos(ph), sin(th)*sin(ph),
....:         cos(th))}, name='Phi', latex_name=r'\Phi')
sage: Phi1 == Phi
True

The differentiable map acting on a point:

sage: p = U.point((pi/2, pi)) ; p
Point on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: Phi(p)
Point on the 3-dimensional differentiable manifold R^3
sage: Phi(p).coord(c_cart)
(-1, 0, 0)
sage: Phi1(p) == Phi(p)
True

See the documentation of class DiffMap for more examples.

diffeomorphism(codomain, coord_functions=None, chart1=None, chart2=None, name=None, latex_name=None)

Define a diffeomorphism between the current manifold and another one.

See DiffMap for a complete documentation.

INPUT:

• codomain – codomain of the diffeomorphism (the arrival manifold or some subset of it)

• coord_functions – (default: None) if not None, must be either

• (i) a dictionary of the coordinate expressions (as lists (or tuples) of the coordinates of the image expressed in terms of the coordinates of the considered point) with the pairs of charts (chart1, chart2) as keys (chart1 being a chart on the current manifold and chart2 a chart on codomain)
• (ii) a single coordinate expression in a given pair of charts, the latter being provided by the arguments chart1 and chart2

In both cases, if the dimension of the arrival manifold is 1, a single coordinate expression can be passed instead of a tuple with a single element

• chart1 – (default: None; used only in case (ii) above) chart on the current manifold defining the start coordinates involved in coord_functions for case (ii); if none is provided, the coordinates are assumed to refer to the manifold’s default chart

• chart2 – (default: None; used only in case (ii) above) chart on codomain defining the arrival coordinates involved in coord_functions for case (ii); if none is provided, the coordinates are assumed to refer to the default chart of codomain

• name – (default: None) name given to the diffeomorphism

• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the diffeomorphism; if none is provided, the LaTeX symbol is set to name

OUTPUT:

• the diffeomorphism, as an instance of DiffMap

EXAMPLES:

Diffeomorphism between the open unit disk in $$\RR^2$$ and $$\RR^2$$:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')  # the open unit disk
sage: forget()  # for doctests only
sage: c_xy.<x,y> = M.chart('x:(-1,1) y:(-1,1)')  # Cartesian coord on M
sage: N = Manifold(2, 'N')  # R^2
sage: c_XY.<X,Y> = N.chart()  # canonical coordinates on R^2
sage: Phi = M.diffeomorphism(N, [x/sqrt(1-x^2-y^2), y/sqrt(1-x^2-y^2)],
....:                        name='Phi', latex_name=r'\Phi')
sage: Phi
Diffeomorphism Phi from the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M
to the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold N
sage: Phi.display()
Phi: M --> N
(x, y) |--> (X, Y) = (x/sqrt(-x^2 - y^2 + 1), y/sqrt(-x^2 - y^2 + 1))

The inverse diffeomorphism:

sage: Phi^(-1)
Diffeomorphism Phi^(-1) from the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold N to the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: (Phi^(-1)).display()
Phi^(-1): N --> M
(X, Y) |--> (x, y) = (X/sqrt(X^2 + Y^2 + 1), Y/sqrt(X^2 + Y^2 + 1))

See the documentation of class DiffMap for more examples.

frames()

Return the list of vector frames defined on open subsets of self.

OUTPUT:

• list of vector frames defined on open subsets of self

EXAMPLES:

Vector frames on subsets of $$\RR^2$$:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'R^2')
sage: c_cart.<x,y> = M.chart() # Cartesian coordinates on R^2
sage: M.frames()
[Coordinate frame (R^2, (d/dx,d/dy))]
sage: e = M.vector_frame('e')
sage: M.frames()
[Coordinate frame (R^2, (d/dx,d/dy)),
Vector frame (R^2, (e_0,e_1))]
sage: U = M.open_subset('U', coord_def={c_cart: x^2+y^2<1}) # unit disk
sage: U.frames()
[Coordinate frame (U, (d/dx,d/dy))]
sage: M.frames()
[Coordinate frame (R^2, (d/dx,d/dy)),
Vector frame (R^2, (e_0,e_1)),
Coordinate frame (U, (d/dx,d/dy))]
integrated_autoparallel_curve(affine_connection, curve_param, initial_tangent_vector, chart=None, name=None, latex_name=None, verbose=False, across_charts=False)

Construct an autoparallel curve on the manifold with respect to a given affine connection.

IntegratedAutoparallelCurve for details.

INPUT:

• affine_connectionAffineConnection; affine connection with respect to which the curve is autoparallel
• curve_param – a tuple of the type (t, t_min, t_max), where
• t is the symbolic variable to be used as the parameter of the curve (the equations defining an instance of IntegratedAutoparallelCurve are such that t will actually be an affine parameter of the curve);
• t_min is its minimal (finite) value;
• t_max its maximal (finite) value.
• initial_tangent_vectorTangentVector; initial tangent vector of the curve
• chart – (default: None) chart on the manifold in which the equations are given ; if None the default chart of the manifold is assumed
• name – (default: None) string; symbol given to the curve
• latex_name – (default: None) string; LaTeX symbol to denote the curve; if none is provided, name will be used

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Autoparallel curves associated with the Mercator projection of the 2-sphere $$\mathbb{S}^{2}$$:

sage: S2 = Manifold(2, 'S^2', start_index=1)
sage: polar.<th,ph> = S2.chart('th ph')
sage: epolar = polar.frame()
sage: ch_basis = S2.automorphism_field()
sage: ch_basis[1,1], ch_basis[2,2] = 1, 1/sin(th)
sage: epolar_ON=S2.default_frame().new_frame(ch_basis,'epolar_ON')

Set the affine connection associated with Mercator projection; it is metric compatible but it has non-vanishing torsion:

sage: nab = S2.affine_connection('nab')
sage: nab.set_coef(epolar_ON)[:]
[[[0, 0], [0, 0]], [[0, 0], [0, 0]]]
sage: g = S2.metric('g')
sage: g[1,1], g[2,2] = 1, (sin(th))^2
sage: nab(g)[:]
[[[0, 0], [0, 0]], [[0, 0], [0, 0]]]
sage: nab.torsion()[:]
[[[0, 0], [0, 0]], [[0, cos(th)/sin(th)], [-cos(th)/sin(th), 0]]]

Declare an integrated autoparallel curve with respect to this connection:

sage: p = S2.point((pi/4, 0), name='p')
sage: Tp = S2.tangent_space(p)
sage: v = Tp((1,1), basis=epolar_ON.at(p))
sage: t = var('t')
sage: c = S2.integrated_autoparallel_curve(nab, (t, 0, 6),
....:                              v, chart=polar, name='c')
sage: sys = c.system(verbose=True)
Autoparallel curve c in the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold S^2 equipped with Affine connection nab on the
2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2, and integrated
over the Real interval (0, 6) as a solution to the
following equations, written with respect to
Chart (S^2, (th, ph)):

Initial point: Point p on the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold S^2 with coordinates [1/4*pi, 0] with respect to
Chart (S^2, (th, ph))
Initial tangent vector: Tangent vector at Point p on the
2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2 with
components [1, sqrt(2)] with respect to
Chart (S^2, (th, ph))

d(th)/dt = Dth
d(ph)/dt = Dph
d(Dth)/dt = 0
d(Dph)/dt = -Dph*Dth*cos(th)/sin(th)

sage: sol = c.solve()
sage: interp = c.interpolate()
sage: p = c(1.3, verbose=True)
Evaluating point coordinates from the interpolation
associated with the key 'cubic spline-interp-rk4_maxima'
by default...
sage: p
Point on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: p.coordinates()     # abs tol 1e-12
(2.085398163397449, 1.4203172015958863)
sage: tgt_vec = c.tangent_vector_eval_at(3.7, verbose=True)
Evaluating tangent vector components from the interpolation
associated with the key 'cubic spline-interp-rk4_maxima'
by default...
sage: tgt_vec[:]     # abs tol 1e-12
[0.9999999999999732, -1.016513736236512]
integrated_curve(equations_rhs, velocities, curve_param, initial_tangent_vector, chart=None, name=None, latex_name=None, verbose=False, across_charts=False)

Construct a curve defined by a system of second order differential equations in the coordinate functions.

IntegratedCurve for details.

INPUT:

• equations_rhs – list of the right-hand sides of the equations on the velocities only
• velocities – list of the symbolic expressions used in equations_rhs to denote the velocities
• curve_param – a tuple of the type (t, t_min, t_max), where
• t is the symbolic variable used in equations_rhs to denote the parameter of the curve;
• t_min is its minimal (finite) value;
• t_max its maximal (finite) value.
• initial_tangent_vectorTangentVector; initial tangent vector of the curve
• chart – (default: None) chart on the manifold in which the equations are given; if None the default chart of the manifold is assumed
• name – (default: None) string; symbol given to the curve
• latex_name – (default: None) string; LaTeX symbol to denote the curve; if none is provided, name will be used

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Trajectory of a particle of unit mass and unit charge in a unit, uniform, stationary magnetic field:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M')
sage: X.<x1,x2,x3> = M.chart()
sage: t = var('t')
sage: D = X.symbolic_velocities()
sage: eqns = [D[1], -D[0], SR(0)]
sage: p = M.point((0,0,0), name='p')
sage: Tp = M.tangent_space(p)
sage: v = Tp((1,0,1))
sage: c = M.integrated_curve(eqns, D, (t,0,6), v, name='c'); c
Integrated curve c in the 3-dimensional differentiable
manifold M
sage: sys = c.system(verbose=True)
Curve c in the 3-dimensional differentiable manifold M
integrated over the Real interval (0, 6) as a solution to
the following system, written with respect to
Chart (M, (x1, x2, x3)):

Initial point: Point p on the 3-dimensional differentiable
manifold M with coordinates [0, 0, 0] with respect to
Chart (M, (x1, x2, x3))
Initial tangent vector: Tangent vector at Point p on the
3-dimensional differentiable manifold M with
components [1, 0, 1] with respect to Chart (M, (x1, x2, x3))

d(x1)/dt = Dx1
d(x2)/dt = Dx2
d(x3)/dt = Dx3
d(Dx1)/dt = Dx2
d(Dx2)/dt = -Dx1
d(Dx3)/dt = 0

sage: sol = c.solve()
sage: interp = c.interpolate()
sage: p = c(1.3, verbose=True)
Evaluating point coordinates from the interpolation
associated with the key 'cubic spline-interp-rk4_maxima'
by default...
sage: p
Point on the 3-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: p.coordinates()     # abs tol 1e-12
(0.9635581155730744, -0.7325010457963622, 1.3)
sage: tgt_vec = c.tangent_vector_eval_at(3.7, verbose=True)
Evaluating tangent vector components from the interpolation
associated with the key 'cubic spline-interp-rk4_maxima'
by default...
sage: tgt_vec[:]     # abs tol 1e-12
[-0.8481008455360024, 0.5298346120470748, 1.0000000000000007]
integrated_geodesic(metric, curve_param, initial_tangent_vector, chart=None, name=None, latex_name=None, verbose=False, across_charts=False)

Construct a geodesic on the manifold with respect to a given metric.

IntegratedGeodesic for details.

INPUT:

• metricPseudoRiemannianMetric metric with respect to which the curve is a geodesic
• curve_param – a tuple of the type (t, t_min, t_max), where
• t is the symbolic variable to be used as the parameter of the curve (the equations defining an instance of IntegratedGeodesic are such that t will actually be an affine parameter of the curve);
• t_min is its minimal (finite) value;
• t_max its maximal (finite) value.
• initial_tangent_vectorTangentVector; initial tangent vector of the curve
• chart – (default: None) chart on the manifold in which the equations are given; if None the default chart of the manifold is assumed
• name – (default: None) string; symbol given to the curve
• latex_name – (default: None) string; LaTeX symbol to denote the curve; if none is provided, name will be used

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Geodesics of the unit 2-sphere $$\mathbb{S}^{2}$$:

sage: S2 = Manifold(2, 'S^2', start_index=1)
sage: polar.<th,ph> = S2.chart('th ph')
sage: epolar = polar.frame()

Set the standard metric tensor $$g$$ on $$\mathbb{S}^{2}$$:

sage: g = S2.metric('g')
sage: g[1,1], g[2,2] = 1, (sin(th))^2

Declare an integrated geodesic with respect to this metric:

sage: p = S2.point((pi/4, 0), name='p')
sage: Tp = S2.tangent_space(p)
sage: v = Tp((1, 1), basis=epolar.at(p))
sage: t = var('t')
sage: c = S2.integrated_geodesic(g, (t, 0, 6), v,
....:                                 chart=polar, name='c')
sage: sys = c.system(verbose=True)
Geodesic c in the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
equipped with Riemannian metric g on the 2-dimensional
differentiable manifold S^2, and integrated over the Real
interval (0, 6) as a solution to the following geodesic
equations, written with respect to Chart (S^2, (th, ph)):

Initial point: Point p on the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold S^2 with coordinates [1/4*pi, 0] with respect to
Chart (S^2, (th, ph))
Initial tangent vector: Tangent vector at Point p on the
2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2 with
components [1, 1] with respect to Chart (S^2, (th, ph))

d(th)/dt = Dth
d(ph)/dt = Dph
d(Dth)/dt = Dph^2*cos(th)*sin(th)
d(Dph)/dt = -2*Dph*Dth*cos(th)/sin(th)

sage: sol = c.solve()
sage: interp = c.interpolate()
sage: p = c(1.3, verbose=True)
Evaluating point coordinates from the interpolation
associated with the key 'cubic spline-interp-rk4_maxima'
by default...
sage: p
Point on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: p.coordinates()     # abs tol 1e-12
(2.2047444794514663, 0.7986609561213334)
sage: tgt_vec = c.tangent_vector_eval_at(3.7, verbose=True)
Evaluating tangent vector components from the interpolation
associated with the key 'cubic spline-interp-rk4_maxima'
by default...
sage: tgt_vec[:]     # abs tol 1e-12
[-1.090742147346732, 0.620568327518154]
is_manifestly_parallelizable()

Return True if self is known to be a parallelizable and False otherwise.

If False is returned, either the manifold is not parallelizable or no vector frame has been defined on it yet.

EXAMPLES:

A just created manifold is a priori not manifestly parallelizable:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: M.is_manifestly_parallelizable()
False

Defining a vector frame on it makes it parallelizable:

sage: e = M.vector_frame('e')
sage: M.is_manifestly_parallelizable()
True

Defining a coordinate chart on the whole manifold also makes it parallelizable:

sage: N = Manifold(4, 'N')
sage: X.<t,x,y,z> = N.chart()
sage: N.is_manifestly_parallelizable()
True
lorentzian_metric(name, signature='positive', latex_name=None, dest_map=None)

Define a Lorentzian metric on the manifold.

A Lorentzian metric is a field of nondegenerate symmetric bilinear forms acting in the tangent spaces, with signature $$(-,+,\cdots,+)$$ or $$(+,-,\cdots,-)$$.

See PseudoRiemannianMetric for a complete documentation.

INPUT:

• name – name given to the metric
• signature – (default: ‘positive’) sign of the metric signature:
• if set to ‘positive’, the signature is n-2, where n is the manifold’s dimension, i.e. $$(-,+,\cdots,+)$$
• if set to ‘negative’, the signature is -n+2, i.e. $$(+,-,\cdots,-)$$
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the metric; if None, it is formed from name
• dest_map – (default: None) instance of class DiffMap representing the destination map $$\Phi:\ U \rightarrow M$$, where $$U$$ is the current manifold; if None, the identity map is assumed (case of a metric tensor field on $$U$$)

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Metric of Minkowski spacetime:

sage: M = Manifold(4, 'M')
sage: X.<t,x,y,z> = M.chart()
sage: g = M.lorentzian_metric('g'); g
Lorentzian metric g on the 4-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: g[0,0], g[1,1], g[2,2], g[3,3] = -1, 1, 1, 1
sage: g.display()
g = -dt*dt + dx*dx + dy*dy + dz*dz
sage: g.signature()
2

Choice of a negative signature:

sage: g = M.lorentzian_metric('g', signature='negative'); g
Lorentzian metric g on the 4-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: g[0,0], g[1,1], g[2,2], g[3,3] = 1, -1, -1, -1
sage: g.display()
g = dt*dt - dx*dx - dy*dy - dz*dz
sage: g.signature()
-2
metric(name, signature=None, latex_name=None, dest_map=None)

Define a pseudo-Riemannian metric on the manifold.

A pseudo-Riemannian metric is a field of nondegenerate symmetric bilinear forms acting in the tangent spaces. See PseudoRiemannianMetric for a complete documentation.

INPUT:

• name – name given to the metric
• signature – (default: None) signature $$S$$ of the metric as a single integer: $$S = n_+ - n_-$$, where $$n_+$$ (resp. $$n_-$$) is the number of positive terms (resp. number of negative terms) in any diagonal writing of the metric components; if signature is not provided, $$S$$ is set to the manifold’s dimension (Riemannian signature)
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the metric; if None, it is formed from name
• dest_map – (default: None) instance of class DiffMap representing the destination map $$\Phi:\ U \rightarrow M$$, where $$U$$ is the current manifold; if None, the identity map is assumed (case of a metric tensor field on $$U$$)

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Metric on a 3-dimensional manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M', start_index=1)
sage: c_xyz.<x,y,z> = M.chart()
sage: g = M.metric('g'); g
Riemannian metric g on the 3-dimensional differentiable manifold M

PseudoRiemannianMetric for more examples.

multivector_field(degree, name=None, latex_name=None, dest_map=None)

Define a multivector field on self.

Via the argument dest_map, it is possible to let the multivector field take its values on another manifold. More precisely, if $$M$$ is the current manifold, $$N$$ a differentiable manifold, $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$ a differentiable map and $$p$$ a non-negative integer, a multivector field of degree $$p$$ (or $$p$$-vector field) along $$M$$ with values on $$N$$ is a differentiable map

$t:\ M \longrightarrow T^{(p,0)} N$

($$T^{(p,0)} N$$ being the tensor bundle of type $$(p,0)$$ over $$N$$) such that

$\forall x \in M,\quad t(x) \in \Lambda^p(T_{\Phi(x)} N),$

where $$\Lambda^p(T_{\Phi(x)} N)$$ is the $$p$$-th exterior power of the tangent vector space $$T_{\Phi(x)} N$$.

The standard case of a $$p$$-vector field on $$M$$ corresponds to $$N = M$$ and $$\Phi = \mathrm{Id}_M$$. Other common cases are $$\Phi$$ being an immersion and $$\Phi$$ being a curve in $$N$$ ($$M$$ is then an open interval of $$\RR$$).

For $$p = 1$$, one can use the method vector_field() instead.

MultivectorField for complete documentation.

INPUT:

• degree – the degree $$p$$ of the multivector field (i.e. its tensor rank)
• name – (default: None) name given to the multivector field
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the multivector field; if none is provided, the LaTeX symbol is set to name
• dest_map – (default: None) the destination map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of a multivector field on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

A 2-vector field on a open subset of a 4-dimensional

differentiable manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(4, 'M')
sage: A = M.open_subset('A', latex_name=r'\mathcal{A}'); A
Open subset A of the 4-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: c_xyzt.<x,y,z,t> = A.chart()
sage: h = A.multivector_field(2, 'H'); h
2-vector field H on the Open subset A of the 4-dimensional
differentiable manifold M

See the documentation of class MultivectorField for more examples.

multivector_module(degree, dest_map=None)

Return the set of multivector fields of a given degree defined on self, possibly with values in another manifold, as a module over the algebra of scalar fields defined on self.

MultivectorModule for complete documentation.

INPUT:

• degree – positive integer; the degree $$p$$ of the multivector fields
• dest_map – (default: None) destination map, i.e. a differentiable map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$, where $$M$$ is the current manifold and $$N$$ a differentiable manifold; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of multivector fields on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Module of 2-vector fields on a 3-dimensional parallelizable manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M')
sage: X.<x,y,z> = M.chart()
sage: M.multivector_module(2)
Free module A^2(M) of 2-vector fields on the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: M.multivector_module(2).category()
Category of finite dimensional modules over Algebra of
differentiable scalar fields on the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: M.multivector_module(2).base_ring()
Algebra of differentiable scalar fields on the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: M.multivector_module(2).rank()
3

The outcome is cached:

sage: M.multivector_module(2) is M.multivector_module(2)
True
one_form(name=None, latex_name=None, dest_map=None)

Define a 1-form on the manifold.

Via the argument dest_map, it is possible to let the 1-form take its values on another manifold. More precisely, if $$M$$ is the current manifold, $$N$$ a differentiable manifold and $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$ a differentiable map, a 1-form along $$M$$ with values on $$N$$ is a differentiable map

$t:\ M \longrightarrow T^* N$

($$T^* N$$ being the cotangent bundle of $$N$$) such that

$\forall p \in M,\quad t(p) \in T^*_{\Phi(p)}N,$

where $$T^*_{\Phi(p)}$$ is the dual of the tangent space $$T_{\Phi(p)} N$$.

The standard case of a 1-form on $$M$$ corresponds to $$N = M$$ and $$\Phi = \mathrm{Id}_M$$. Other common cases are $$\Phi$$ being an immersion and $$\Phi$$ being a curve in $$N$$ ($$M$$ is then an open interval of $$\RR$$).

DiffForm for complete documentation.

INPUT:

• name – (default: None) name given to the 1-form
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the 1-form; if none is provided, the LaTeX symbol is set to name
• dest_map – (default: None) the destination map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of a 1-form on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

A 1-form on a 3-dimensional open subset:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M')
sage: A = M.open_subset('A', latex_name=r'\mathcal{A}')
sage: X.<x,y,z> = A.chart()
sage: om = A.one_form('omega', r'\omega') ; om
1-form omega on the Open subset A of the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: om.parent()
Free module Omega^1(A) of 1-forms on the Open subset A of
the 3-dimensional differentiable manifold M

For more examples, see DiffForm.

open_subset(name, latex_name=None, coord_def={})

Create an open subset of the manifold.

An open subset is a set that is (i) included in the manifold and (ii) open with respect to the manifold’s topology. It is a differentiable manifold by itself. Hence the returned object is an instance of DifferentiableManifold.

INPUT:

• name – name given to the open subset
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the subset; if none is provided, it is set to name
• coord_def – (default: {}) definition of the subset in terms of coordinates; coord_def must a be dictionary with keys charts in the manifold’s atlas and values the symbolic expressions formed by the coordinates to define the subset.

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Creating an open subset of a differentiable manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: A = M.open_subset('A'); A
Open subset A of the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M

As an open subset of a differentiable manifold, A is itself a differentiable manifold, on the same topological field and of the same dimension as M:

sage: A.category()
Join of Category of subobjects of sets and Category of smooth
manifolds over Real Field with 53 bits of precision
sage: A.base_field() == M.base_field()
True
sage: dim(A) == dim(M)
True

Creating an open subset of A:

sage: B = A.open_subset('B'); B
Open subset B of the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M

We have then:

sage: A.list_of_subsets()
[Open subset A of the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M,
Open subset B of the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M]
sage: B.is_subset(A)
True
sage: B.is_subset(M)
True

Defining an open subset by some coordinate restrictions: the open unit disk in of the Euclidean plane:

sage: X.<x,y> = M.chart() # Cartesian coordinates on M
sage: U = M.open_subset('U', coord_def={X: x^2+y^2<1}); U
Open subset U of the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M

Since the argument coord_def has been set, U is automatically endowed with a chart, which is the restriction of X to U:

sage: U.atlas()
[Chart (U, (x, y))]
sage: U.default_chart()
Chart (U, (x, y))
sage: U.default_chart() is X.restrict(U)
True

An point in U:

sage: p = U.an_element(); p
Point on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: X(p)  # the coordinates (x,y) of p
(0, 0)
sage: p in U
True

Checking whether various points, defined by their coordinates with respect to chart X, are in U:

sage: M((0,1/2)) in U
True
sage: M((0,1)) in U
False
sage: M((1/2,1)) in U
False
sage: M((-1/2,1/3)) in U
True
riemannian_metric(name, latex_name=None, dest_map=None)

Define a Riemannian metric on the manifold.

A Riemannian metric is a field of positive definite symmetric bilinear forms acting in the tangent spaces.

See PseudoRiemannianMetric for a complete documentation.

INPUT:

• name – name given to the metric
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the metric; if None, it is formed from name
• dest_map – (default: None) instance of class DiffMap representing the destination map $$\Phi:\ U \rightarrow M$$, where $$U$$ is the current manifold; if None, the identity map is assumed (case of a metric tensor field on $$U$$)

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Metric of the hyperbolic plane $$H^2$$:

sage: H2 = Manifold(2, 'H^2', start_index=1)
sage: X.<x,y> = H2.chart('x y:(0,+oo)')  # Poincaré half-plane coord.
sage: g = H2.riemannian_metric('g')
sage: g[1,1], g[2,2] = 1/y^2, 1/y^2
sage: g
Riemannian metric g on the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold H^2
sage: g.display()
g = y^(-2) dx*dx + y^(-2) dy*dy
sage: g.signature()
2

PseudoRiemannianMetric for more examples.

set_change_of_frame(frame1, frame2, change_of_frame, compute_inverse=True)

Relate two vector frames by an automorphism.

This updates the internal dictionary self._frame_changes.

INPUT:

• frame1 – frame 1, denoted $$(e_i)$$ below
• frame2 – frame 2, denoted $$(f_i)$$ below
• change_of_frame – instance of class AutomorphismFieldParal describing the automorphism $$P$$ that relates the basis $$(e_i)$$ to the basis $$(f_i)$$ according to $$f_i = P(e_i)$$
• compute_inverse (default: True) – if set to True, the inverse automorphism is computed and the change from basis $$(f_i)$$ to $$(e_i)$$ is set to it in the internal dictionary self._frame_changes

EXAMPLES:

Connecting two vector frames on a 2-dimensional manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: c_xy.<x,y> = M.chart()
sage: e = M.vector_frame('e')
sage: f = M.vector_frame('f')
sage: a = M.automorphism_field()
sage: a[e,:] = [[1,2],[0,3]]
sage: M.set_change_of_frame(e, f, a)
sage: f[0].display(e)
f_0 = e_0
sage: f[1].display(e)
f_1 = 2 e_0 + 3 e_1
sage: e[0].display(f)
e_0 = f_0
sage: e[1].display(f)
e_1 = -2/3 f_0 + 1/3 f_1
sage: M.change_of_frame(e,f)[e,:]
[1 2]
[0 3]
set_default_frame(frame)

Changing the default vector frame on self.

INPUT:

• frameVectorFrame a vector frame defined on the manifold

EXAMPLES:

Changing the default frame on a 2-dimensional manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: c_xy.<x,y> = M.chart()
sage: e = M.vector_frame('e')
sage: M.default_frame()
Coordinate frame (M, (d/dx,d/dy))
sage: M.set_default_frame(e)
sage: M.default_frame()
Vector frame (M, (e_0,e_1))
sym_bilin_form_field(name=None, latex_name=None, dest_map=None)

Define a field of symmetric bilinear forms on self.

Via the argument dest_map, it is possible to let the field take its values on another manifold. More precisely, if $$M$$ is the current manifold, $$N$$ a differentiable manifold and $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$ a differentiable map, a field of symmetric bilinear forms along $$M$$ with values on $$N$$ is a differentiable map

$t:\ M \longrightarrow T^{(0,2)}N$

($$T^{(0,2)} N$$ being the tensor bundle of type $$(0,2)$$ over $$N$$) such that

$\forall p \in M,\ t(p) \in S(T_{\Phi(p)} N),$

where $$S(T_{\Phi(p)} N)$$ is the space of symmetric bilinear forms on the tangent space $$T_{\Phi(p)} N$$.

The standard case of fields of symmetric bilinear forms on $$M$$ corresponds to $$N = M$$ and $$\Phi = \mathrm{Id}_M$$. Other common cases are $$\Phi$$ being an immersion and $$\Phi$$ being a curve in $$N$$ ($$M$$ is then an open interval of $$\RR$$).

INPUT:

• name – (default: None) name given to the field
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the field; if none is provided, the LaTeX symbol is set to name
• dest_map – (default: None) the destination map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of a field on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be an instance of instance of class DiffMap

OUTPUT:

• a TensorField (or if $$N$$ is parallelizable, a TensorFieldParal) of tensor type $$(0,2)$$ and symmetric representing the defined field of symmetric bilinear forms

EXAMPLES:

A field of symmetric bilinear forms on a 3-dimensional manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M')
sage: c_xyz.<x,y,z> = M.chart()
sage: t = M.sym_bilin_form_field('T'); t
Field of symmetric bilinear forms T on the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M

Such a object is a tensor field of rank 2 and type $$(0,2)$$:

sage: t.parent()
Free module T^(0,2)(M) of type-(0,2) tensors fields on the
3-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: t.tensor_rank()
2
sage: t.tensor_type()
(0, 2)

The LaTeX symbol is deduced from the name or can be specified when creating the object:

sage: latex(t)
T
sage: om = M.sym_bilin_form_field('Omega', r'\Omega')
sage: latex(om)
\Omega

Components with respect to some vector frame:

sage: e = M.vector_frame('e') ; M.set_default_frame(e)
sage: t.set_comp()
Fully symmetric 2-indices components w.r.t. Vector frame
(M, (e_0,e_1,e_2))
sage: type(t.comp())
<class 'sage.tensor.modules.comp.CompFullySym'>

For the default frame, the components are accessed with the square brackets:

sage: t[0,0], t[0,1], t[0,2] = (1, 2, 3)
sage: t[1,1], t[1,2] = (4, 5)
sage: t[2,2] = 6

The other components are deduced by symmetry:

sage: t[1,0], t[2,0], t[2,1]
(2, 3, 5)
sage: t[:]
[1 2 3]
[2 4 5]
[3 5 6]

A symmetric bilinear form acts on vector pairs:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: c_xy.<x,y> = M.chart()
sage: t = M.sym_bilin_form_field('T')
sage: t[0,0], t[0,1], t[1,1] = (-1, x, y*x)
sage: v1 = M.vector_field('V_1')
sage: v1[:] = (y,x)
sage: v2 = M.vector_field('V_2')
sage: v2[:] = (x+y,2)
sage: s = t(v1,v2) ; s
Scalar field T(V_1,V_2) on the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold M
sage: s.expr()
x^3 + (3*x^2 + x)*y - y^2
sage: s.expr() - t[0,0]*v1[0]*v2[0] - \
....: t[0,1]*(v1[0]*v2[1]+v1[1]*v2[0]) - t[1,1]*v1[1]*v2[1]
0
sage: latex(s)
T\left(V_1,V_2\right)

Adding two symmetric bilinear forms results in another symmetric bilinear form:

sage: a = M.sym_bilin_form_field()
sage: a[0,0], a[0,1], a[1,1] = (1,2,3)
sage: b = M.sym_bilin_form_field()
sage: b[0,0], b[0,1], b[1,1] = (-1,4,5)
sage: s = a + b ; s
Field of symmetric bilinear forms on the 2-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: s[:]
[0 6]
[6 8]

But adding a symmetric bilinear from with a non-symmetric bilinear form results in a generic type $$(0,2)$$ tensor:

sage: c = M.tensor_field(0,2)
sage: c[:] = [[-2, -3], [1,7]]
sage: s1 = a + c ; s1
Tensor field of type (0,2) on the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold M
sage: s1[:]
[-1 -1]
[ 3 10]
sage: s2 = c + a ; s2
Tensor field of type (0,2) on the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold M
sage: s2[:]
[-1 -1]
[ 3 10]
tangent_identity_field(name='Id', latex_name=None, dest_map=None)

Return the field of identity maps in the tangent spaces on self.

Via the argument dest_map, it is possible to let the field take its values on another manifold. More precisely, if $$M$$ is the current manifold, $$N$$ a differentiable manifold and $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$ a differentiable map, a field of identity maps along $$M$$ with values on $$N$$ is a differentiable map

$t:\ M \longrightarrow T^{(1,1)} N$

($$T^{(1,1)} N$$ being the tensor bundle of type $$(1,1)$$ over $$N$$) such that

$\forall p \in M,\ t(p) = \mathrm{Id}_{T_{\Phi(p)} N},$

where $$\mathrm{Id}_{T_{\Phi(p)} N}$$ is the identity map of the tangent space $$T_{\Phi(p)} N$$.

The standard case of a field of identity maps on $$M$$ corresponds to $$N = M$$ and $$\Phi = \mathrm{Id}_M$$. Other common cases are $$\Phi$$ being an immersion and $$\Phi$$ being a curve in $$N$$ ($$M$$ is then an open interval of $$\RR$$).

INPUT:

• name – (string; default: ‘Id’) name given to the field of identity maps
• latex_name – (string; default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the field of identity map; if none is provided, the LaTeX symbol is set to ‘mathrm{Id}’ if name is ‘Id’ and to name otherwise
• dest_map – (default: None) the destination map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of a field of identity maps on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Field of tangent-space identity maps on a 3-dimensional manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M', start_index=1)
sage: c_xyz.<x,y,z> = M.chart()
sage: a = M.tangent_identity_field(); a
Field of tangent-space identity maps on the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M
sage: a.comp()
Kronecker delta of size 3x3

For more examples, see AutomorphismField.

tangent_space(point)

Tangent space to self at a given point.

INPUT:

OUTPUT:

• TangentSpace representing the tangent vector space $$T_{p} M$$, where $$M$$ is the current manifold

EXAMPLES:

A tangent space to a 2-dimensional manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(2, 'M')
sage: X.<x,y> = M.chart()
sage: p = M.point((2, -3), name='p')
sage: Tp = M.tangent_space(p); Tp
Tangent space at Point p on the 2-dimensional differentiable
manifold M
sage: Tp.category()
Category of finite dimensional vector spaces over Symbolic Ring
sage: dim(Tp)
2

TangentSpace for more examples.

tensor_field(k, l, name=None, latex_name=None, sym=None, antisym=None, dest_map=None)

Define a tensor field on self.

Via the argument dest_map, it is possible to let the tensor field take its values on another manifold. More precisely, if $$M$$ is the current manifold, $$N$$ a differentiable manifold, $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$ a differentiable map and $$(k,l)$$ a pair of non-negative integers, a tensor field of type $$(k,l)$$ along $$M$$ with values on $$N$$ is a differentiable map

$t:\ M \longrightarrow T^{(k,l)} N$

($$T^{(k,l)}N$$ being the tensor bundle of type $$(k,l)$$ over $$N$$) such that

$\forall p \in M,\ t(p) \in T^{(k,l)}(T_{\Phi(p)} N),$

where $$T^{(k,l)}(T_{\Phi(p)} N)$$ is the space of tensors of type $$(k,l)$$ on the tangent space $$T_{\Phi(p)} N$$.

The standard case of tensor fields on $$M$$ corresponds to $$N=M$$ and $$\Phi = \mathrm{Id}_M$$. Other common cases are $$\Phi$$ being an immersion and $$\Phi$$ being a curve in $$N$$ ($$M$$ is then an open interval of $$\RR$$).

See TensorField for a complete documentation.

INPUT:

• k – the contravariant rank $$k$$, the tensor type being $$(k,l)$$
• l – the covariant rank $$l$$, the tensor type being $$(k,l)$$
• name – (default: None) name given to the tensor field
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the tensor field; if None, the LaTeX symbol is set to name
• sym – (default: None) a symmetry or a list of symmetries among the tensor arguments: each symmetry is described by a tuple containing the positions of the involved arguments, with the convention position=0 for the first argument; for instance:
• sym = (0,1) for a symmetry between the 1st and 2nd arguments
• sym = [(0,2), (1,3,4)] for a symmetry between the 1st and 3rd arguments and a symmetry between the 2nd, 4th and 5th arguments
• antisym – (default: None) antisymmetry or list of antisymmetries among the arguments, with the same convention as for sym
• dest_map – (default: None) the destination map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of a tensor field on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

A tensor field of type $$(2,0)$$ on an open subset of a 3-dimensional differentiable manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M')
sage: U = M.open_subset('U')
sage: c_xyz.<x,y,z> = U.chart()
sage: t = U.tensor_field(2, 0, 'T'); t
Tensor field T of type (2,0) on the Open subset U of the
3-dimensional differentiable manifold M

The type $$(2,0)$$ tensor fields on $$U$$ form the set $$\mathcal{T}^{(2,0)}(U)$$, which is a module over the algebra $$C^k(U)$$ of differentiable scalar fields on $$U$$:

sage: t.parent()
Free module T^(2,0)(U) of type-(2,0) tensors fields on the Open
subset U of the 3-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: t in U.tensor_field_module((2,0))
True

For more examples, see TensorField.

tensor_field_module(tensor_type, dest_map=None)

Return the set of tensor fields of a given type defined on self, possibly with values in another manifold, as a module over the algebra of scalar fields defined on self.

TensorFieldModule for complete documentation.

INPUT:

• tensor_type – pair $$(k,l)$$ with $$k$$ being the contravariant rank and $$l$$ the covariant rank
• dest_map – (default: None) destination map, i.e. a differentiable map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$, where $$M$$ is the current manifold and $$N$$ a differentiable manifold; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of tensor fields on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap

OUTPUT:

• a TensorFieldModule (or if $$N$$ is parallelizable, a TensorFieldFreeModule) representing the module $$\mathcal{T}^{(k,l)}(M,\Phi)$$ of type-$$(k,l)$$ tensor fields on $$M$$ taking values on $$\Phi(M)\subset M$$

EXAMPLES:

Module of type-$$(2,1)$$ tensor fields on a 3-dimensional open subset of a differentiable manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M')
sage: U = M.open_subset('U')
sage: c_xyz.<x,y,z> = U.chart()
sage: TU = U.tensor_field_module((2,1)) ; TU
Free module T^(2,1)(U) of type-(2,1) tensors fields on the Open
subset U of the 3-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: TU.category()
Category of finite dimensional modules over Algebra of
differentiable scalar fields on the Open subset U of the
3-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: TU.base_ring()
Algebra of differentiable scalar fields on the Open subset U of
the 3-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: TU.base_ring() is U.scalar_field_algebra()
True
sage: TU.an_element()
Tensor field of type (2,1) on the Open subset U of the
3-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: TU.an_element().display()
2 d/dx*d/dx*dx
vector_field(name=None, latex_name=None, dest_map=None)

Define a vector field on self.

Via the argument dest_map, it is possible to let the vector field take its values on another manifold. More precisely, if $$M$$ is the current manifold, $$N$$ a differentiable manifold and $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$ a differentiable map, a vector field along $$M$$ with values on $$N$$ is a differentiable map

$v:\ M \longrightarrow TN$

($$TN$$ being the tangent bundle of $$N$$) such that

$\forall p \in M,\ v(p) \in T_{\Phi(p)} N,$

where $$T_{\Phi(p)} N$$ is the tangent space to $$N$$ at the point $$\Phi(p)$$.

The standard case of vector fields on $$M$$ corresponds to $$N = M$$ and $$\Phi = \mathrm{Id}_M$$. Other common cases are $$\Phi$$ being an immersion and $$\Phi$$ being a curve in $$N$$ ($$M$$ is then an open interval of $$\RR$$).

See VectorField for a complete documentation.

INPUT:

• name – (default: None) name given to the vector field
• latex_name – (default: None) LaTeX symbol to denote the vector field; if none is provided, the LaTeX symbol is set to name
• dest_map – (default: None) the destination map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of a vector field on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

A vector field on a open subset of a 3-dimensional differentiable manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M')
sage: U = M.open_subset('U')
sage: c_xyz.<x,y,z> = U.chart()
sage: v = U.vector_field('v'); v
Vector field v on the Open subset U of the 3-dimensional
differentiable manifold M

The vector fields on $$U$$ form the set $$\mathfrak{X}(U)$$, which is a module over the algebra $$C^k(U)$$ of differentiable scalar fields on $$U$$:

sage: v.parent()
Free module X(U) of vector fields on the Open subset U of the
3-dimensional differentiable manifold M
sage: v in U.vector_field_module()
True

For more examples, see VectorField.

vector_field_module(dest_map=None, force_free=False)

Return the set of vector fields defined on self, possibly with values in another differentiable manifold, as a module over the algebra of scalar fields defined on the manifold.

See VectorFieldModule for a complete documentation.

INPUT:

• dest_map – (default: None) destination map, i.e. a differentiable map $$\Phi:\ M \rightarrow N$$, where $$M$$ is the current manifold and $$N$$ a differentiable manifold; if None, it is assumed that $$N = M$$ and that $$\Phi$$ is the identity map (case of vector fields on $$M$$), otherwise dest_map must be a DiffMap
• force_free – (default: False) if set to True, force the construction of a free module (this implies that $$N$$ is parallelizable)

OUTPUT:

• a VectorFieldModule (or if $$N$$ is parallelizable, a VectorFieldFreeModule) representing the module $$\mathfrak{X}(M,\Phi)$$ of vector fields on $$M$$ taking values on $$\Phi(M)\subset N$$

EXAMPLES:

Vector field module $$\mathfrak{X}(U) := \mathfrak{X}(U,\mathrm{Id}_U)$$ of the complement $$U$$ of the two poles on the sphere $$\mathbb{S}^2$$:

sage: S2 = Manifold(2, 'S^2')
sage: U = S2.open_subset('U')  # the complement of the two poles
sage: spher_coord.<th,ph> = U.chart(r'th:(0,pi):\theta ph:(0,2*pi):\phi') # spherical coordinates
sage: XU = U.vector_field_module() ; XU
Free module X(U) of vector fields on the Open subset U of
the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: XU.category()
Category of finite dimensional modules over Algebra of
differentiable scalar fields on the Open subset U of
the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: XU.base_ring()
Algebra of differentiable scalar fields on the Open subset U of
the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2
sage: XU.base_ring() is U.scalar_field_algebra()
True

$$\mathfrak{X}(U)$$ is a free module because $$U$$ is parallelizable (being a chart domain):

sage: U.is_manifestly_parallelizable()
True

Its rank is the manifold’s dimension:

sage: XU.rank()
2

The elements of $$\mathfrak{X}(U)$$ are vector fields on $$U$$:

sage: XU.an_element()
Vector field on the Open subset U of the 2-dimensional
differentiable manifold S^2
sage: XU.an_element().display()
2 d/dth + 2 d/dph

Vector field module $$\mathfrak{X}(U,\Phi)$$ of the $$\RR^3$$-valued vector fields along $$U$$, associated with the embedding $$\Phi$$ of $$\mathbb{S}^2$$ into $$\RR^3$$:

sage: R3 = Manifold(3, 'R^3')
sage: cart_coord.<x, y, z> = R3.chart()
sage: Phi = U.diff_map(R3,
....:      [sin(th)*cos(ph), sin(th)*sin(ph), cos(th)], name='Phi')
sage: XU_R3 = U.vector_field_module(dest_map=Phi) ; XU_R3
Free module X(U,Phi) of vector fields along the Open subset U of
the 2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2 mapped into the
3-dimensional differentiable manifold R^3
sage: XU_R3.base_ring()
Algebra of differentiable scalar fields on the Open subset U of the
2-dimensional differentiable manifold S^2

$$\mathfrak{X}(U,\Phi)$$ is a free module because $$\RR^3$$ is parallelizable and its rank is 3:

sage: XU_R3.rank()
3
vector_frame(symbol=None, latex_symbol=None, dest_map=None, from_frame=None, indices=None, latex_indices=None, symbol_dual=None, latex_symbol_dual=None)

Define a vector frame on self.

A vector frame is a field on the manifold that provides, at each point $$p$$ of the manifold, a vector basis of the tangent space at $$p$$ (or at $$\Phi(p)$$ when dest_map is not None, see below).

VectorFrame for complete documentation.

INPUT:

• symbol – (default: None) either a string, to be used as a common base for the symbols of the vector fields constituting the vector frame, or a list/tuple of strings, representing the individual symbols of the vector fields; can be None only if from_frame is not None (see below)
• latex_symbol – (default: None) either a string, to be used as a common base for the LaTeX symbols of the vector fields constituting the vector frame, or a list/tuple of strings, representing the individual LaTeX symbols of the vector fields; if None, symbol is used in place of latex_symbol
• dest_map – (default: None) DiffMap; destination map $$\Phi:\ U \rightarrow M$$, where $$U$$ is self and $$M$$ is a differentiable manifold; for each $$p\in U$$, the vector frame evaluated at $$p$$ is a basis of the tangent space $$T_{\Phi(p)}M$$; if dest_map is None, the identity is assumed (case of a vector frame on $$U$$)
• from_frame – (default: None) vector frame $$\tilde{e}$$ on the codomain $$M$$ of the destination map $$\Phi$$; the returned frame $$e$$ is then such that for all $$p \in U$$, we have $$e(p) = \tilde{e}(\Phi(p))$$
• indices – (default: None; used only if symbol is a single string) tuple of strings representing the indices labelling the vector fields of the frame; if None, the indices will be generated as integers within the range declared on self
• latex_indices – (default: None) tuple of strings representing the indices for the LaTeX symbols of the vector fields; if None, indices is used instead
• symbol_dual – (default: None) same as symbol but for the dual coframe; if None, symbol must be a string and is used for the common base of the symbols of the elements of the dual coframe
• latex_symbol_dual – (default: None) same as latex_symbol but for the dual coframe

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

Setting a vector frame on a 3-dimensional manifold:

sage: M = Manifold(3, 'M')
sage: X.<x,y,z> = M.chart()
sage: e = M.vector_frame('e'); e
Vector frame (M, (e_0,e_1,e_2))
sage: e[0]
Vector field e_0 on the 3-dimensional differentiable manifold M