Finite \(\ZZ\)-modules with with bilinear and quadratic forms.

AUTHORS:

  • Simon Brandhorst (2017-09): First created
sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module.TorsionQuadraticForm(q)

Create a torsion quadratic form module from a rational matrix.

The resulting quadratic form takes values in \(\QQ / \ZZ\) or \(\QQ / 2 \ZZ\) (depending on q). If it takes values modulo \(2\), then it is non-degenerate. In any case the bilinear form is non-degenerate.

INPUT:

  • q – a symmetric rational matrix

EXAMPLES:

sage: q1 = Matrix(QQ,2,[1,1/2,1/2,1])
sage: TorsionQuadraticForm(q1)
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2, 2)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
[  1 1/2]
[1/2   1]

In the following example the quadratic form is degenerate. But the bilinear form is still non-degenerate:

sage: q2 = diagonal_matrix(QQ,[1/4,1/3])
sage: TorsionQuadraticForm(q2)
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (12,)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/Z:
[7/12]
class sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module.TorsionQuadraticModule(V, W, gens=None, modulus=None, modulus_qf=None, check=True)

Bases: sage.modules.fg_pid.fgp_module.FGP_Module_class

Finite quotients with a bilinear and a quadratic form.

Let \(V\) be a symmetric FreeQuadraticModule and \(W \subseteq V\) a submodule of the same rank as \(V\). The quotient \(V / W\) is a torsion quadratic module. It inherits a bilinear form \(b\) and a quadratic form \(q\).

\(b: V \times V \to \QQ / m\ZZ\), where \(m\ZZ = (V,W)\) and \(b(x,y) = (x,y) + m\ZZ\)

\(q: V \to \QQ / n\ZZ\), where \(n\ZZ = 2(V,W) + \ZZ \{ (w,w) | w \in W \}\)

INPUT:

  • V – a FreeModule with a symmetric inner product matrix
  • W – a submodule of V of the same rank as V
  • check – bool (default: True)
  • modulus – a rational number dividing \(m\) (default: \(m\)); the inner product \(b\) is defined in \(\QQ /\) modulus \(\ZZ\)
  • modulus_qf – a rational number dividing \(n\) (default: \(n\)); the quadratic form \(q\) is defined in \(\QQ /\) modulus_qf \(\ZZ\)

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: V = FreeModule(ZZ, 3)
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule(V, 5*V)
sage: T
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (5, 5, 5)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/5Z:
[1 0 0]
[0 1 0]
[0 0 1]
Element

alias of TorsionQuadraticModuleElement

all_submodules()

Return a list of all submodules of self.

WARNING:

This method creates all submodules in memory. The number of submodules grows rapidly with the number of generators. For example consider a vector space of dimension \(n\) over a finite field of prime order \(p\). The number of subspaces is (very) roughly \(p^{(n^2-n)/2}\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: D = IntegralLattice("D4").discriminant_group()
sage: D.all_submodules()
[Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants ()
  Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
  [],
 Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2,)
  Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
  [1],
 Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2,)
  Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
  [1],
 Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2,)
  Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
  [1],
 Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2, 2)
  Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
  [  1 1/2]
  [1/2   1]]
brown_invariant()

Return the Brown invariant of this torsion quadratic form.

Let \((D,q)\) be a torsion quadratic module with values in \(\QQ / 2 \ZZ\). The Brown invariant \(Br(D,q) \in \Zmod{8}\) is defined by the equation

\[\exp \left( \frac{2 \pi i }{8} Br(q)\right) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{D}} \sum_{x \in D} \exp(i \pi q(x)).\]

The Brown invariant is additive with respect to direct sums of torsion quadratic modules.

OUTPUT:

  • an element of \(\Zmod{8}\)

EXAMPLES:

sage: L = IntegralLattice("D4")
sage: D = L.discriminant_group()
sage: D.brown_invariant()
4

We require the quadratic form to be defined modulo \(2 \ZZ\):

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: V = FreeQuadraticModule(ZZ,3,matrix.identity(3))
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule((1/10)*V, V)
sage: T.brown_invariant()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: the torsion quadratic form must have values in QQ / 2 ZZ
gens()

Return generators of self.

There is no assumption on the generators except that they generate the module.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: V = FreeModule(ZZ, 3)
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule(V, 5*V)
sage: T.gens()
((1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1))
genus(signature_pair)

Return the genus defined by self and the signature_pair.

If no such genus exists, raise a ValueError.

REFERENCES:

[Nik1977] Corollary 1.9.4 and 1.16.3.

EXAMPLES:

sage: L = IntegralLattice("D4").direct_sum(IntegralLattice("A2"))
sage: D = L.discriminant_group()
sage: genus = D.genus(L.signature_pair())
sage: genus
Genus of
None
Signature:  (6, 0)
Genus symbol at 2:    1^4:2^-2
Genus symbol at 3:     1^-5 3^-1
sage: genus == L.genus()
True

Let \(H\) be an even unimodular lattice of signature \((9, 1)\). Then \(L = D_4 + A_2\) is primitively embedded in \(H\). We compute the discriminant form of the orthogonal complement of \(L\) in \(H\):

sage: DK = D.twist(-1)
sage: DK
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2, 6)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
[  1 1/2]
[1/2 1/3]

We know that \(K\) has signature \((5, 1)\) and thus we can compute the genus of \(K\) as:

sage: DK.genus((3,1))
Genus of
None
Signature:  (3, 1)
Genus symbol at 2:    1^2:2^-2
Genus symbol at 3:     1^-3 3^1

We can also compute the genus of an odd lattice from its discriminant form:

sage: L = IntegralLattice(matrix.diagonal(range(1,5)))
sage: D = L.discriminant_group()
sage: D.genus((4,0))
Genus of
None
Signature:  (4, 0)
Genus symbol at 2:    [1^-2 2^1 4^1]_6
Genus symbol at 3:     1^-3 3^1
gram_matrix_bilinear()

Return the Gram matrix with respect to the generators.

OUTPUT:

A rational matrix G with G[i,j] given by the inner product of the \(i\)-th and \(j\)-th generator. Its entries are only well defined \(\mod (V, W)\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: V = FreeQuadraticModule(ZZ, 3, matrix.identity(3)*5)
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule((1/5)*V, V)
sage: T.gram_matrix_bilinear()
[1/5   0   0]
[  0 1/5   0]
[  0   0 1/5]
gram_matrix_quadratic()

The Gram matrix of the quadratic form with respect to the generators.

OUTPUT:

  • a rational matrix Gq with Gq[i,j] = gens[i]*gens[j] and G[i,i] = gens[i].q()

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: D4_gram = Matrix(ZZ, [[2,0,0,-1],[0,2,0,-1],[0,0,2,-1],[-1,-1,-1,2]])
sage: D4 = FreeQuadraticModule(ZZ, 4, D4_gram)
sage: D4dual = D4.span(D4_gram.inverse())
sage: discrForm = TorsionQuadraticModule(D4dual, D4)
sage: discrForm.gram_matrix_quadratic()
[  1 1/2]
[1/2   1]
sage: discrForm.gram_matrix_bilinear()
[  0 1/2]
[1/2   0]
is_genus(signature_pair, even=True)

Return True if there is a lattice with this signature and discriminant form.

Todo

implement the same for odd lattices

INPUT:

  • signature_pair – a tuple of non negative integers (s_plus, s_minus)
  • even – bool (default: True)

EXAMPLES:

sage: L = IntegralLattice("D4").direct_sum(IntegralLattice(3 * Matrix(ZZ,2,[2,1,1,2])))
sage: D = L.discriminant_group()
sage: D.is_genus((6,0))
True

Let us see if there is a lattice in the genus defined by the same discriminant form but with a different signature:

sage: D.is_genus((4,2))
False
sage: D.is_genus((16,2))
True
normal_form(partial=False)

Return the normal form of this torsion quadratic module.

Two torsion quadratic modules are isomorphic if and only if they have the same value modules and the same normal form.

A torsion quadratic module \((T,q)\) with values in \(\QQ/n\ZZ\) is in normal form if the rescaled quadratic module \((T, q/n)\) with values in \(\QQ/\ZZ\) is in normal form.

For the definition of normal form see [MirMor2009] IV Definition 4.6. Below are some of its properties. Let \(p\) be odd and \(u\) be the smallest non-square modulo \(p\). The normal form is a diagonal matrix with diagonal entries either \(p^n\) or \(u p^n\).

If \(p = 2\) is even, then the normal form consists of 1 x 1 blocks of the form

\[(0), \quad 2^n(1),\quad 2^n(3),\quad 2^n(5) ,\quad 2^n(7)\]

or of \(2 \times 2\) blocks of the form

\[\begin{split}2^n \left(\begin{matrix} 2 & 1\\ 1 & 2 \end{matrix}\right), \quad 2^n \left(\begin{matrix} 0 & 1\\ 1 & 0 \end{matrix}\right).\end{split}\]

The blocks are ordered by their valuation.

INPUT:

  • partial - bool (default: False) return only a partial normal form it is not unique but still useful to extract invariants

OUTPUT:

  • a torsion quadratic module

EXAMPLES:

sage: L1=IntegralLattice(matrix([[-2,0,0],[0,1,0],[0,0,4]]))
sage: L1.discriminant_group().normal_form()
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2, 4)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/Z:
[1/2   0]
[  0 1/4]
sage: L2=IntegralLattice(matrix([[-2,0,0],[0,1,0],[0,0,-4]]))
sage: L2.discriminant_group().normal_form()
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2, 4)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/Z:
[1/2   0]
[  0 1/4]

We check that trac ticket #24864 is fixed:

sage: L1=IntegralLattice(matrix([[-4,0,0],[0,4,0],[0,0,-2]]))
sage: AL1=L1.discriminant_group()
sage: L2=IntegralLattice(matrix([[-4,0,0],[0,-4,0],[0,0,2]]))
sage: AL2=L2.discriminant_group()
sage: AL1.normal_form()
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2, 4, 4)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
[1/2   0   0]
[  0 1/4   0]
[  0   0 5/4]
sage: AL2.normal_form()
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2, 4, 4)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
[1/2   0   0]
[  0 1/4   0]
[  0   0 5/4]

Some exotic cases:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: D4_gram = Matrix(ZZ,4,4,[2,0,0,-1,0,2,0,-1,0,0,2,-1,-1,-1,-1,2])
sage: D4 = FreeQuadraticModule(ZZ,4,D4_gram)
sage: D4dual = D4.span(D4_gram.inverse())
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule((1/6)*D4dual,D4)
sage: T
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (6, 6, 12, 12)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/(1/3)Z:
[1/18 5/36    0    0]
[5/36 1/18 5/36 5/36]
[   0 5/36 1/36 1/72]
[   0 5/36 1/72 1/36]
sage: T.normal_form()
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (6, 6, 12, 12)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/(1/3)Z:
[ 1/6 1/12    0    0    0    0    0    0]
[1/12  1/6    0    0    0    0    0    0]
[   0    0 1/12 1/24    0    0    0    0]
[   0    0 1/24 1/12    0    0    0    0]
[   0    0    0    0  1/9    0    0    0]
[   0    0    0    0    0  1/9    0    0]
[   0    0    0    0    0    0  1/9    0]
[   0    0    0    0    0    0    0  1/9]
orthogonal_submodule_to(S)

Return the submodule orthogonal to S.

INPUT:

  • S – a submodule, list, or tuple of generators

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: V = FreeModule(ZZ, 10)
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule(V, 3*V)
sage: S = T.submodule(T.gens()[:5])
sage: O = T.orthogonal_submodule_to(S)
sage: O
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (3, 3, 3, 3, 3)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/3Z:
[1 0 0 0 0]
[0 1 0 0 0]
[0 0 1 0 0]
[0 0 0 1 0]
[0 0 0 0 1]
sage: O.V() + S.V() == T.V()
True
primary_part(m)

Return the m-primary part of this torsion quadratic module as a submodule.

INPUT:

  • m – an integer

OUTPUT:

  • a submodule

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule((1/6)*ZZ^3,ZZ^3)
sage: T
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (6, 6, 6)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/(1/3)Z:
[1/36    0    0]
[   0 1/36    0]
[   0    0 1/36]
sage: T.primary_part(2)
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2, 2, 2)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/(1/3)Z:
[1/4   0   0]
[  0 1/4   0]
[  0   0 1/4]
submodule_with_gens(gens)

Return a submodule with generators given by gens.

INPUT:

  • gens – a list of generators that convert into self

OUTPUT:

  • a submodule with the specified generators

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: V = FreeQuadraticModule(ZZ,3,matrix.identity(3)*10)
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule((1/10)*V, V)
sage: g = T.gens()
sage: new_gens = [2*g[0], 5*g[0]]
sage: T.submodule_with_gens(new_gens)
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (10,)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
[2/5   0]
[  0 1/2]

The generators do not need to be independent:

sage: new_gens = [g[0], 2*g[1], g[0], g[1]]
sage: T.submodule_with_gens(new_gens)
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (10, 10)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
[1/10    0 1/10    0]
[   0  2/5    0  1/5]
[1/10    0 1/10    0]
[   0  1/5    0 1/10]
twist(s)

Return the torsion quadratic module with quadratic form scaled by s.

If the old form was defined modulo \(n\), then the new form is defined modulo \(n s\).

INPUT:

  • s - a rational number

EXAMPLES:

sage: q = TorsionQuadraticForm(matrix.diagonal([3/9, 1/9]))
sage: q.twist(-1)
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (3, 9)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/Z:
[2/3   0]
[  0 8/9]

This form is defined modulo \(3\):

sage: q.twist(3)
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (3, 9)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/3Z:
[  1   0]
[  0 1/3]

The next form is defined modulo \(4\):

sage: q.twist(4)
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (3, 9)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/4Z:
[4/3   0]
[  0 4/9]
value_module()

Return \(\QQ / m\ZZ\) with \(m = (V, W)\).

This is where the inner product takes values.

EXAMPLES:

sage: A2 = Matrix(ZZ, 2, 2, [2,-1,-1,2])
sage: L = IntegralLattice(2*A2)
sage: D = L.discriminant_group()
sage: D
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2, 6)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
[  1 1/2]
[1/2 1/3]
sage: D.value_module()
Q/Z
value_module_qf()

Return \(\QQ / n\ZZ\) with \(n\ZZ = (V,W) + \ZZ \{ (w,w) | w \in W \}\).

This is where the torsion quadratic form takes values.

EXAMPLES:

sage: A2 = Matrix(ZZ, 2, 2, [2,-1,-1,2])
sage: L = IntegralLattice(2*A2)
sage: D = L.discriminant_group()
sage: D
Finite quadratic module over Integer Ring with invariants (2, 6)
Gram matrix of the quadratic form with values in Q/2Z:
[  1 1/2]
[1/2 1/3]
sage: D.value_module_qf()
Q/2Z
class sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module.TorsionQuadraticModuleElement(parent, x, check=True)

Bases: sage.modules.fg_pid.fgp_element.FGP_Element

An element of a torsion quadratic module.

INPUT:

  • parent – parent
  • x – element of parent.V()
  • check – bool (default: True)
b(other)

Compute the inner product of two elements.

OUTPUT:

  • an element of \(\QQ / m\ZZ\) with \(m\ZZ = (V, W)\)

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: V = (1/2)*ZZ^2; W = ZZ^2
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule(V, W)
sage: g = T.gens()
sage: x = g[0]
sage: y = g[0] + g[1]
sage: x
(1, 0)
sage: x*y
1/4

The inner product has further aliases:

sage: x.inner_product(y)
1/4
sage: x.b(y)
1/4
inner_product(other)

Compute the inner product of two elements.

OUTPUT:

  • an element of \(\QQ / m\ZZ\) with \(m\ZZ = (V, W)\)

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: V = (1/2)*ZZ^2; W = ZZ^2
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule(V, W)
sage: g = T.gens()
sage: x = g[0]
sage: y = g[0] + g[1]
sage: x
(1, 0)
sage: x*y
1/4

The inner product has further aliases:

sage: x.inner_product(y)
1/4
sage: x.b(y)
1/4
q()

Compute the quadratic_product of self.

OUTPUT:

  • an element of \(\QQ / n\ZZ\) where \(n\ZZ = 2(V,W) + \ZZ \{ (w,w) | w \in W \}\)

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: W = FreeQuadraticModule(ZZ, 2, 2*matrix.identity(2))
sage: V = (1/2) * W
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule(V,W)
sage: x = T.gen(0)
sage: x
(1, 0)
sage: x.quadratic_product()
1/2
sage: x.quadratic_product().parent()
Q/2Z
sage: x*x
1/2
sage: (x*x).parent()
Q/Z
quadratic_product()

Compute the quadratic_product of self.

OUTPUT:

  • an element of \(\QQ / n\ZZ\) where \(n\ZZ = 2(V,W) + \ZZ \{ (w,w) | w \in W \}\)

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modules.torsion_quadratic_module import TorsionQuadraticModule
sage: W = FreeQuadraticModule(ZZ, 2, 2*matrix.identity(2))
sage: V = (1/2) * W
sage: T = TorsionQuadraticModule(V,W)
sage: x = T.gen(0)
sage: x
(1, 0)
sage: x.quadratic_product()
1/2
sage: x.quadratic_product().parent()
Q/2Z
sage: x*x
1/2
sage: (x*x).parent()
Q/Z