# Sage interface to Cremona’s eclib library (also known as mwrank)¶

This is the Sage interface to John Cremona’s eclib C++ library for arithmetic on elliptic curves. The classes defined in this module give Sage interpreter-level access to some of the functionality of eclib. For most purposes, it is not necessary to directly use these classes. Instead, one can create an EllipticCurve and call methods that are implemented using this module.

Note

This interface is a direct library-level interface to eclib, including the 2-descent program mwrank.

class sage.libs.eclib.interface.mwrank_EllipticCurve(ainvs, verbose=False)

The mwrank_EllipticCurve class represents an elliptic curve using the Curvedata class from eclib, called here an ‘mwrank elliptic curve’.

Create the mwrank elliptic curve with invariants ainvs, which is a list of 5 or less integers $$a_1$$, $$a_2$$, $$a_3$$, $$a_4$$, and $$a_5$$.

If strictly less than 5 invariants are given, then the first ones are set to 0, so, e.g., [3,4] means $$a_1=a_2=a_3=0$$ and $$a_4=3$$, $$a_5=4$$.

INPUT:

• ainvs (list or tuple) – a list of 5 or less integers, the coefficients of a nonsingular Weierstrass equation.
• verbose (bool, default False) – verbosity flag. If True, then all Selmer group computations will be verbose.

EXAMPLES:

We create the elliptic curve $$y^2 + y = x^3 + x^2 - 2x$$:

sage: e = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, 1, 1, -2, 0])
sage: e.ainvs()
[0, 1, 1, -2, 0]


This example illustrates that omitted $$a$$-invariants default to $$0$$:

sage: e = mwrank_EllipticCurve([3, -4])
sage: e
y^2 = x^3 + 3*x - 4
sage: e.ainvs()
[0, 0, 0, 3, -4]


The entries of the input list are coerced to int. If this is impossible, then an error is raised:

sage: e = mwrank_EllipticCurve([3, -4.8]); e
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: ainvs must be a list or tuple of integers.


When you enter a singular model you get an exception:

sage: e = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, 0])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ArithmeticError: Invariants (= 0,0,0,0,0) do not describe an elliptic curve.

CPS_height_bound()

Return the Cremona-Prickett-Siksek height bound. This is a floating point number $$B$$ such that if $$P$$ is a point on the curve, then the naive logarithmic height $$h(P)$$ is less than $$B+\hat{h}(P)$$, where $$\hat{h}(P)$$ is the canonical height of $$P$$.

Warning

We assume the model is minimal!

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, 0, 0, -1002231243161, 0])
sage: E.CPS_height_bound()
14.163198527061496
sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: E.CPS_height_bound()
0.0

ainvs()

Returns the $$a$$-invariants of this mwrank elliptic curve.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-1,0])
sage: E.ainvs()
[0, 0, 1, -1, 0]

certain()

Returns True if the last two_descent() call provably correctly computed the rank. If two_descent() hasn’t been called, then it is first called by certain() using the default parameters.

The result is True if and only if the results of the methods rank() and rank_bound() are equal.

EXAMPLES:

A 2-descent does not determine $$E(\QQ)$$ with certainty for the curve $$y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 120x - 2183$$:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, -1, 1, -120, -2183])
sage: E.two_descent(False)
...
sage: E.certain()
False
sage: E.rank()
0


The previous value is only a lower bound; the upper bound is greater:

sage: E.rank_bound()
2


In fact the rank of $$E$$ is actually 0 (as one could see by computing the $$L$$-function), but Sha has order 4 and the 2-torsion is trivial, so mwrank cannot conclusively determine the rank in this case.

conductor()

Return the conductor of this curve, computed using Cremona’s implementation of Tate’s algorithm.

Note

This is independent of PARI’s.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([1, 1, 0, -6958, -224588])
sage: E.conductor()
2310

gens()

Return a list of the generators for the Mordell-Weil group.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, 0, 1, -1, 0])
sage: E.gens()
[[0, -1, 1]]

isogeny_class(verbose=False)

Returns the isogeny class of this mwrank elliptic curve.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,-1,1,0,0])
sage: E.isogeny_class()
([[0, -1, 1, 0, 0], [0, -1, 1, -10, -20], [0, -1, 1, -7820, -263580]], [[0, 5, 0], [5, 0, 5], [0, 5, 0]])

rank()

Returns the rank of this curve, computed using two_descent().

In general this may only be a lower bound for the rank; an upper bound may be obtained using the function rank_bound(). To test whether the value has been proved to be correct, use the method certain().

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, -1, 0, -900, -10098])
sage: E.rank()
0
sage: E.certain()
True

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, -1, 1, -929, -10595])
sage: E.rank()
0
sage: E.certain()
False

rank_bound()

Returns an upper bound for the rank of this curve, computed using two_descent().

If the curve has no 2-torsion, this is equal to the 2-Selmer rank. If the curve has 2-torsion, the upper bound may be smaller than the bound obtained from the 2-Selmer rank minus the 2-rank of the torsion, since more information is gained from the 2-isogenous curve or curves.

EXAMPLES:

The following is the curve 960D1, which has rank 0, but Sha of order 4:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, -1, 0, -900, -10098])
sage: E.rank_bound()
0
sage: E.rank()
0


In this case the rank was computed using a second descent, which is able to determine (by considering a 2-isogenous curve) that Sha is nontrivial. If we deliberately stop the second descent, the rank bound is larger:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, -1, 0, -900, -10098])
sage: E.two_descent(second_descent = False, verbose=False)
sage: E.rank_bound()
2


In contrast, for the curve 571A, also with rank 0 and Sha of order 4, we only obtain an upper bound of 2:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, -1, 1, -929, -10595])
sage: E.rank_bound()
2


In this case the value returned by rank() is only a lower bound in general (though this is correct):

sage: E.rank()
0
sage: E.certain()
False

regulator()

Return the regulator of the saturated Mordell-Weil group.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, 0, 1, -1, 0])
sage: E.regulator()
0.05111140823996884

saturate(bound=-1)

Compute the saturation of the Mordell-Weil group at all primes up to bound.

INPUT:

• bound (int, default -1) – Use $$-1$$ (the default) to saturate at all primes, $$0$$ for no saturation, or $$n$$ (a positive integer) to saturate at all primes up to $$n$$.

EXAMPLES:

Since the 2-descent automatically saturates at primes up to 20, it is not easy to come up with an example where saturation has any effect:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, 0, 0, -1002231243161, 0])
sage: E.gens()
[[-1001107, -4004428, 1]]
sage: E.saturate()
sage: E.gens()
[[-1001107, -4004428, 1]]


Check that trac ticket #18031 is fixed:

sage: E = EllipticCurve([0,-1,1,-266,968])
sage: Q1 = E([-1995,3674,125])
sage: Q2 = E([157,1950,1])
sage: E.saturation([Q1,Q2])
([(1 : -27 : 1), (157 : 1950 : 1)], 3, 0.801588644684981)

selmer_rank()

Returns the rank of the 2-Selmer group of the curve.

EXAMPLES:

The following is the curve 960D1, which has rank 0, but Sha of order 4. The 2-torsion has rank 2, and the Selmer rank is 3:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, -1, 0, -900, -10098])
sage: E.selmer_rank()
3


Nevertheless, we can obtain a tight upper bound on the rank since a second descent is performed which establishes the 2-rank of Sha:

sage: E.rank_bound()
0


To show that this was resolved using a second descent, we do the computation again but turn off second_descent:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, -1, 0, -900, -10098])
sage: E.two_descent(second_descent = False, verbose=False)
sage: E.rank_bound()
2


For the curve 571A, also with rank 0 and Sha of order 4, but with no 2-torsion, the Selmer rank is strictly greater than the rank:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, -1, 1, -929, -10595])
sage: E.selmer_rank()
2
sage: E.rank_bound()
2


In cases like this with no 2-torsion, the rank upper bound is always equal to the 2-Selmer rank. If we ask for the rank, all we get is a lower bound:

sage: E.rank()
0
sage: E.certain()
False

set_verbose(verbose)

Set the verbosity of printing of output by the two_descent() and other functions.

INPUT:

• verbose (int) – if positive, print lots of output when doing 2-descent.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, 0, 1, -1, 0])
sage: E.saturate() # no output
sage: E.gens()
[[0, -1, 1]]

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, 0, 1, -1, 0])
sage: E.set_verbose(1)
sage: E.saturate() # tol 1e-10
Basic pair: I=48, J=-432
disc=255744
By Lemma 5.1(a), 2-adic index = 1
One (I,J) pair
Looking for quartics with I = 48, J = -432
Looking for Type 2 quartics:
Trying positive a from 1 up to 1 (square a first...)
(1,0,-6,4,1)        --trivial
Trying positive a from 1 up to 1 (...then non-square a)
Finished looking for Type 2 quartics.
Looking for Type 1 quartics:
Trying positive a from 1 up to 2 (square a first...)
(1,0,0,4,4) --nontrivial...(x:y:z) = (1 : 1 : 0)
Point = [0:0:1]
height = 0.0511114082399688402358
Rank of B=im(eps) increases to 1 (The previous point is on the egg)
Exiting search for Type 1 quartics after finding one which is globally soluble.
Mordell rank contribution from B=im(eps) = 1
Selmer  rank contribution from B=im(eps) = 1
Sha     rank contribution from B=im(eps) = 0
Mordell rank contribution from A=ker(eps) = 0
Selmer  rank contribution from A=ker(eps) = 0
Sha     rank contribution from A=ker(eps) = 0
Searching for points (bound = 8)...done:
found points which generate a subgroup of rank 1
and regulator 0.0511114082399688402358
Processing points found during 2-descent...done:
now regulator = 0.0511114082399688402358
Saturating (with bound = -1)...done:

silverman_bound()

Return the Silverman height bound. This is a floating point number $$B$$ such that if $$P$$ is a point on the curve, then the naive logarithmic height $$h(P)$$ is less than $$B+\hat{h}(P)$$, where $$\hat{h}(P)$$ is the canonical height of $$P$$.

Warning

We assume the model is minimal!

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, 0, 0, -1002231243161, 0])
sage: E.silverman_bound()
18.29545210468247
sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: E.silverman_bound()
6.284833369972403

two_descent(verbose=True, selmer_only=False, first_limit=20, second_limit=8, n_aux=-1, second_descent=True)

Compute 2-descent data for this curve.

INPUT:

• verbose (bool, default True) – print what mwrank is doing.
• selmer_only (bool, default False) – selmer_only switch.
• first_limit (int, default 20) – bound on $$|x|+|z|$$ in quartic point search.
• second_limit (int, default 8) – bound on $$\log \max(|x|,|z|)$$, i.e. logarithmic.
• n_aux (int, default -1) – (only relevant for general 2-descent when 2-torsion trivial) number of primes used for quartic search. n_aux=-1 causes default (8) to be used. Increase for curves of higher rank.
• second_descent (bool, default True) – (only relevant for curves with 2-torsion, where mwrank uses descent via 2-isogeny) flag determining whether or not to do second descent. Default strongly recommended.

OUTPUT:

Nothing – nothing is returned.

class sage.libs.eclib.interface.mwrank_MordellWeil(curve, verbose=True, pp=1, maxr=999)

The mwrank_MordellWeil class represents a subgroup of a Mordell-Weil group. Use this class to saturate a specified list of points on an mwrank_EllipticCurve, or to search for points up to some bound.

INPUT:

• curve (mwrank_EllipticCurve) – the underlying elliptic curve.
• verbose (bool, default False) – verbosity flag (controls amount of output produced in point searches).
• pp (int, default 1) – process points flag (if nonzero, the points found are processed, so that at all times only a $$\ZZ$$-basis for the subgroup generated by the points found so far is stored; if zero, no processing is done and all points found are stored).
• maxr (int, default 999) – maximum rank (quit point searching once the points found generate a subgroup of this rank; useful if an upper bound for the rank is already known).

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([1,0,1,4,-6])
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E)
sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: []
sage: EQ.search(2)
P1 = [0:1:0]     is torsion point, order 1
P1 = [1:-1:1]    is torsion point, order 2
P1 = [2:2:1]     is torsion point, order 3
P1 = [9:23:1]    is torsion point, order 6

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E)
sage: EQ.search(2)
P1 = [0:1:0]     is torsion point, order 1
P1 = [-3:0:1]     is generator number 1
...
P4 = [-91:804:343]       = -2*P1 + 2*P2 + 1*P3 (mod torsion)
sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[1:-1:1], [-2:3:1], [-14:25:8]]


Example to illustrate the verbose parameter:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E, verbose=False)
sage: EQ.search(1)
sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[1:-1:1], [-2:3:1], [-14:25:8]]

sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E, verbose=True)
sage: EQ.search(1)
P1 = [0:1:0]     is torsion point, order 1
P1 = [-3:0:1]     is generator number 1
saturating up to 20...Checking 2-saturation
Points have successfully been 2-saturated (max q used = 7)
Checking 3-saturation
Points have successfully been 3-saturated (max q used = 7)
Checking 5-saturation
Points have successfully been 5-saturated (max q used = 23)
Checking 7-saturation
Points have successfully been 7-saturated (max q used = 41)
Checking 11-saturation
Points have successfully been 11-saturated (max q used = 17)
Checking 13-saturation
Points have successfully been 13-saturated (max q used = 43)
Checking 17-saturation
Points have successfully been 17-saturated (max q used = 31)
Checking 19-saturation
Points have successfully been 19-saturated (max q used = 37)
done
P2 = [-2:3:1]     is generator number 2
saturating up to 20...Checking 2-saturation
possible kernel vector = [1,1]
This point may be in 2E(Q): [14:-52:1]
...and it is!
Replacing old generator #1 with new generator [1:-1:1]
Points have successfully been 2-saturated (max q used = 7)
Index gain = 2^1
Checking 3-saturation
Points have successfully been 3-saturated (max q used = 13)
Checking 5-saturation
Points have successfully been 5-saturated (max q used = 67)
Checking 7-saturation
Points have successfully been 7-saturated (max q used = 53)
Checking 11-saturation
Points have successfully been 11-saturated (max q used = 73)
Checking 13-saturation
Points have successfully been 13-saturated (max q used = 103)
Checking 17-saturation
Points have successfully been 17-saturated (max q used = 113)
Checking 19-saturation
Points have successfully been 19-saturated (max q used = 47)
done (index = 2).
Gained index 2, new generators = [ [1:-1:1] [-2:3:1] ]
P3 = [-14:25:8]   is generator number 3
saturating up to 20...Checking 2-saturation
Points have successfully been 2-saturated (max q used = 11)
Checking 3-saturation
Points have successfully been 3-saturated (max q used = 13)
Checking 5-saturation
Points have successfully been 5-saturated (max q used = 71)
Checking 7-saturation
Points have successfully been 7-saturated (max q used = 101)
Checking 11-saturation
Points have successfully been 11-saturated (max q used = 127)
Checking 13-saturation
Points have successfully been 13-saturated (max q used = 151)
Checking 17-saturation
Points have successfully been 17-saturated (max q used = 139)
Checking 19-saturation
Points have successfully been 19-saturated (max q used = 179)
done (index = 1).
P4 = [-1:3:1]    = -1*P1 + -1*P2 + -1*P3 (mod torsion)
P4 = [0:2:1]     = 2*P1 + 0*P2 + 1*P3 (mod torsion)
P4 = [2:13:8]    = -3*P1 + 1*P2 + -1*P3 (mod torsion)
P4 = [1:0:1]     = -1*P1 + 0*P2 + 0*P3 (mod torsion)
P4 = [2:0:1]     = -1*P1 + 1*P2 + 0*P3 (mod torsion)
P4 = [18:7:8]    = -2*P1 + -1*P2 + -1*P3 (mod torsion)
P4 = [3:3:1]     = 1*P1 + 0*P2 + 1*P3 (mod torsion)
P4 = [4:6:1]     = 0*P1 + -1*P2 + -1*P3 (mod torsion)
P4 = [36:69:64]  = 1*P1 + -2*P2 + 0*P3 (mod torsion)
P4 = [68:-25:64]         = -2*P1 + -1*P2 + -2*P3 (mod torsion)
P4 = [12:35:27]  = 1*P1 + -1*P2 + -1*P3 (mod torsion)
sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[1:-1:1], [-2:3:1], [-14:25:8]]


Example to illustrate the process points (pp) parameter:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E, verbose=False, pp=1)
sage: EQ.search(1); EQ # generators only
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[1:-1:1], [-2:3:1], [-14:25:8]]
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E, verbose=False, pp=0)
sage: EQ.search(1); EQ # all points found
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[-3:0:1], [-2:3:1], [-14:25:8], [-1:3:1], [0:2:1], [2:13:8], [1:0:1], [2:0:1], [18:7:8], [3:3:1], [4:6:1], [36:69:64], [68:-25:64], [12:35:27]]

points()

Return a list of the generating points in this Mordell-Weil group.

OUTPUT:

(list) A list of lists of length 3, each holding the primitive integer coordinates $$[x,y,z]$$ of a generating point.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E)
sage: EQ.search(1)
P1 = [0:1:0]         is torsion point, order 1
P1 = [-3:0:1]         is generator number 1
...
P4 = [12:35:27]      = 1*P1 + -1*P2 + -1*P3 (mod torsion)
sage: EQ.points()
[[1, -1, 1], [-2, 3, 1], [-14, 25, 8]]

process(v, sat=0)

This function allows one to add points to a mwrank_MordellWeil object.

Process points in the list v, with saturation at primes up to sat. If sat is zero (the default), do no saturation.

INPUT:

• v (list of 3-tuples or lists of ints or Integers) – a list of triples of integers, which define points on the curve.
• sat (int, default 0) – saturate at primes up to sat, or at all primes if sat is zero.

OUTPUT:

None. But note that if the verbose flag is set, then there will be some output as a side-effect.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: E.gens()
[[1, -1, 1], [-2, 3, 1], [-14, 25, 8]]
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E)
sage: EQ.process([[1, -1, 1], [-2, 3, 1], [-14, 25, 8]])
P1 = [1:-1:1]         is generator number 1
P2 = [-2:3:1]         is generator number 2
P3 = [-14:25:8]       is generator number 3

sage: EQ.points()
[[1, -1, 1], [-2, 3, 1], [-14, 25, 8]]


Example to illustrate the saturation parameter sat:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E)
sage: EQ.process([[1547, -2967, 343], [2707496766203306, 864581029138191, 2969715140223272], [-13422227300, -49322830557, 12167000000]], sat=20)
P1 = [1547:-2967:343]         is generator number 1
...
Gained index 5, new generators = [ [-2:3:1] [-14:25:8] [1:-1:1] ]

sage: EQ.points()
[[-2, 3, 1], [-14, 25, 8], [1, -1, 1]]


Here the processing was followed by saturation at primes up to 20. Now we prevent this initial saturation:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E)
sage: EQ.process([[1547, -2967, 343], [2707496766203306, 864581029138191, 2969715140223272], [-13422227300, -49322830557, 12167000000]], sat=0)
P1 = [1547:-2967:343]         is generator number 1
P2 = [2707496766203306:864581029138191:2969715140223272]      is generator number 2
P3 = [-13422227300:-49322830557:12167000000]          is generator number 3
sage: EQ.points()
[[1547, -2967, 343], [2707496766203306, 864581029138191, 2969715140223272], [-13422227300, -49322830557, 12167000000]]
sage: EQ.regulator()
375.42920288254555
sage: EQ.saturate(2)  # points were not 2-saturated
saturating basis...Saturation index bound = 93
WARNING: saturation at primes p > 2 will not be done;
...
Gained index 2
New regulator =  93.857...
(False, 2, '[ ]')
sage: EQ.points()
[[-2, 3, 1], [2707496766203306, 864581029138191, 2969715140223272], [-13422227300, -49322830557, 12167000000]]
sage: EQ.regulator()
93.85730072063639
sage: EQ.saturate(3)  # points were not 3-saturated
saturating basis...Saturation index bound = 46
WARNING: saturation at primes p > 3 will not be done;
...
Gained index 3
New regulator =  10.428...
(False, 3, '[ ]')
sage: EQ.points()
[[-2, 3, 1], [-14, 25, 8], [-13422227300, -49322830557, 12167000000]]
sage: EQ.regulator()
10.4285889689596
sage: EQ.saturate(5)  # points were not 5-saturated
saturating basis...Saturation index bound = 15
WARNING: saturation at primes p > 5 will not be done;
...
Gained index 5
New regulator =  0.417...
(False, 5, '[ ]')
sage: EQ.points()
[[-2, 3, 1], [-14, 25, 8], [1, -1, 1]]
sage: EQ.regulator()
0.417143558758384
sage: EQ.saturate()   # points are now saturated
saturating basis...Saturation index bound = 3
Checking saturation at [ 2 3 ]
Checking 2-saturation
Points were proved 2-saturated (max q used = 11)
Checking 3-saturation
Points were proved 3-saturated (max q used = 13)
done
(True, 1, '[ ]')

rank()

Return the rank of this subgroup of the Mordell-Weil group.

OUTPUT:

(int) The rank of this subgroup of the Mordell-Weil group.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,-1,1,0,0])
sage: E.rank()
0


A rank 3 example:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E)
sage: EQ.rank()
0
sage: EQ.regulator()
1.0


The preceding output is correct, since we have not yet tried to find any points on the curve either by searching or 2-descent:

sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: []


Now we do a very small search:

sage: EQ.search(1)
P1 = [0:1:0]         is torsion point, order 1
P1 = [-3:0:1]         is generator number 1
saturating up to 20...Checking 2-saturation
...
P4 = [12:35:27]      = 1*P1 + -1*P2 + -1*P3 (mod torsion)
sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[1:-1:1], [-2:3:1], [-14:25:8]]
sage: EQ.rank()
3
sage: EQ.regulator()
0.417143558758384


We do in fact now have a full Mordell-Weil basis.

regulator()

Return the regulator of the points in this subgroup of the Mordell-Weil group.

Note

eclib can compute the regulator to arbitrary precision, but the interface currently returns the output as a float.

OUTPUT:

(float) The regulator of the points in this subgroup.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,-1,1,0,0])
sage: E.regulator()
1.0

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: E.regulator()
0.417143558758384

saturate(max_prime=-1, odd_primes_only=False)

Saturate this subgroup of the Mordell-Weil group.

INPUT:

• max_prime (int, default -1) – saturation is performed for all primes up to max_prime. If $$-1$$ (the default), an upper bound is computed for the primes at which the subgroup may not be saturated, and this is used; however, if the computed bound is greater than a value set by the eclib library (currently 97) then no saturation will be attempted at primes above this.
• odd_primes_only (bool, default False) – only do saturation at odd primes. (If the points have been found via two_descent() they should already be 2-saturated.)

OUTPUT:

(3-tuple) (ok, index, unsatlist) where:

• ok (bool) – True if and only if the saturation was provably successful at all primes attempted. If the default was used for max_prime and no warning was output about the computed saturation bound being too high, then True indicates that the subgroup is saturated at all primes.
• index (int) – the index of the group generated by the original points in their saturation.
• unsatlist (list of ints) – list of primes at which saturation could not be proved or achieved. Increasing the precision should correct this, since it happens when a linear combination of the points appears to be a multiple of $$p$$ but cannot be divided by $$p$$. (Note that eclib uses floating point methods based on elliptic logarithms to divide points.)

Note

We emphasize that if this function returns True as the first return argument (ok), and if the default was used for the parameter max_prime, then the points in the basis after calling this function are saturated at all primes, i.e., saturating at the primes up to max_prime are sufficient to saturate at all primes. Note that the function might not have needed to saturate at all primes up to max_prime. It has worked out what prime you need to saturate up to, and that prime might be smaller than max_prime.

Note

Currently (May 2010), this does not remember the result of calling search(). So calling search() up to height 20 then calling saturate() results in another search up to height 18.

EXAMPLES:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E)


We initialise with three points which happen to be 2, 3 and 5 times the generators of this rank 3 curve. To prevent automatic saturation at this stage we set the parameter sat to 0 (which is in fact the default):

sage: EQ.process([[1547, -2967, 343], [2707496766203306, 864581029138191, 2969715140223272], [-13422227300, -49322830557, 12167000000]], sat=0)
P1 = [1547:-2967:343]         is generator number 1
P2 = [2707496766203306:864581029138191:2969715140223272]      is generator number 2
P3 = [-13422227300:-49322830557:12167000000]          is generator number 3
sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[1547:-2967:343], [2707496766203306:864581029138191:2969715140223272], [-13422227300:-49322830557:12167000000]]
sage: EQ.regulator()
375.42920288254555


Now we saturate at $$p=2$$, and gain index 2:

sage: EQ.saturate(2)  # points were not 2-saturated
saturating basis...Saturation index bound = 93
WARNING: saturation at primes p > 2 will not be done;
...
Gained index 2
New regulator =  93.857...
(False, 2, '[ ]')
sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[-2:3:1], [2707496766203306:864581029138191:2969715140223272], [-13422227300:-49322830557:12167000000]]
sage: EQ.regulator()
93.85730072063639


Now we saturate at $$p=3$$, and gain index 3:

sage: EQ.saturate(3)  # points were not 3-saturated
saturating basis...Saturation index bound = 46
WARNING: saturation at primes p > 3 will not be done;
...
Gained index 3
New regulator =  10.428...
(False, 3, '[ ]')
sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[-2:3:1], [-14:25:8], [-13422227300:-49322830557:12167000000]]
sage: EQ.regulator()
10.4285889689596


Now we saturate at $$p=5$$, and gain index 5:

sage: EQ.saturate(5)  # points were not 5-saturated
saturating basis...Saturation index bound = 15
WARNING: saturation at primes p > 5 will not be done;
...
Gained index 5
New regulator =  0.417...
(False, 5, '[ ]')
sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[-2:3:1], [-14:25:8], [1:-1:1]]
sage: EQ.regulator()
0.417143558758384


Finally we finish the saturation. The output here shows that the points are now provably saturated at all primes:

sage: EQ.saturate()   # points are now saturated
saturating basis...Saturation index bound = 3
Checking saturation at [ 2 3 ]
Checking 2-saturation
Points were proved 2-saturated (max q used = 11)
Checking 3-saturation
Points were proved 3-saturated (max q used = 13)
done
(True, 1, '[ ]')


Of course, the process() function would have done all this automatically for us:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E)
sage: EQ.process([[1547, -2967, 343], [2707496766203306, 864581029138191, 2969715140223272], [-13422227300, -49322830557, 12167000000]], sat=5)
P1 = [1547:-2967:343]         is generator number 1
...
Gained index 5, new generators = [ [-2:3:1] [-14:25:8] [1:-1:1] ]
sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[-2:3:1], [-14:25:8], [1:-1:1]]
sage: EQ.regulator()
0.417143558758384


But we would still need to use the saturate() function to verify that full saturation has been done:

sage: EQ.saturate()
saturating basis...Saturation index bound = 3
Checking saturation at [ 2 3 ]
Checking 2-saturation
Points were proved 2-saturated (max q used = 11)
Checking 3-saturation
Points were proved 3-saturated (max q used = 13)
done
(True, 1, '[ ]')


Note the output of the preceding command: it proves that the index of the points in their saturation is at most 3, then proves saturation at 2 and at 3, by reducing the points modulo all primes of good reduction up to 11, respectively 13.

search(height_limit=18, verbose=False)

Search for new points, and add them to this subgroup of the Mordell-Weil group.

INPUT:

• height_limit (float, default: 18) – search up to this logarithmic height.

Note

On 32-bit machines, this must be < 21.48 else $$\exp(h_{\text{lim}}) > 2^{31}$$ and overflows. On 64-bit machines, it must be at most 43.668. However, this bound is a logarithmic bound and increasing it by just 1 increases the running time by (roughly) $$\exp(1.5)=4.5$$, so searching up to even 20 takes a very long time.

Note

The search is carried out with a quadratic sieve, using code adapted from a version of Michael Stoll’s ratpoints program. It would be preferable to use a newer version of ratpoints.

• verbose (bool, default False) – turn verbose operation on or off.

EXAMPLES:

A rank 3 example, where a very small search is sufficient to find a Mordell-Weil basis:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-7,6])
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E)
sage: EQ.search(1)
P1 = [0:1:0]         is torsion point, order 1
P1 = [-3:0:1]         is generator number 1
...
P4 = [12:35:27]      = 1*P1 + -1*P2 + -1*P3 (mod torsion)
sage: EQ
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[1:-1:1], [-2:3:1], [-14:25:8]]


In the next example, a search bound of 12 is needed to find a non-torsion point:

sage: E = mwrank_EllipticCurve([0, -1, 0, -18392, -1186248]) #1056g4
sage: EQ = mwrank_MordellWeil(E)
sage: EQ.search(11); EQ
P1 = [0:1:0]         is torsion point, order 1
P1 = [161:0:1]       is torsion point, order 2
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: []
sage: EQ.search(12); EQ
P1 = [0:1:0]         is torsion point, order 1
P1 = [161:0:1]       is torsion point, order 2
P1 = [4413270:10381877:27000]         is generator number 1
...
Subgroup of Mordell-Weil group: [[4413270:10381877:27000]]