# Exponential integrals#

AUTHORS:

• Benjamin Jones (2011-06-12)

This module provides easy access to many exponential integral special functions. It utilizes Maxima’s special functions package and the mpmath library.

REFERENCES:

AUTHORS:

• Benjamin Jones

Implementations of the classes Function_exp_integral_*.

• David Joyner and William Stein

Authors of the code which was moved from special.py and trans.py. Implementation of exp_int() (from sage/functions/special.py). Implementation of exponential_integral_1() (from sage/functions/transcendental.py).

class sage.functions.exp_integral.Function_cos_integral[source]#

The trigonometric integral $$\operatorname{Ci}(z)$$ defined by

$\operatorname{Ci}(z) = \gamma + \log(z) + \int_0^z \frac{\cos(t)-1}{t} \; dt,$

where $$\gamma$$ is the Euler gamma constant (euler_gamma in Sage), see [AS1964] 5.2.1.

EXAMPLES:

sage: z = var('z')                                                              # needs sage.symbolic
sage: cos_integral(z)                                                           # needs sage.symbolic
cos_integral(z)
sage: cos_integral(3.0)                                                         # needs mpmath
0.119629786008000
sage: cos_integral(0)                                                           # needs sage.symbolic
cos_integral(0)
sage: N(cos_integral(0))                                                        # needs mpmath
-infinity

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> z = var('z')                                                              # needs sage.symbolic
>>> cos_integral(z)                                                           # needs sage.symbolic
cos_integral(z)
>>> cos_integral(RealNumber('3.0'))                                                         # needs mpmath
0.119629786008000
>>> cos_integral(Integer(0))                                                           # needs sage.symbolic
cos_integral(0)
>>> N(cos_integral(Integer(0)))                                                        # needs mpmath
-infinity


Numerical evaluation for real and complex arguments is handled using mpmath:

sage: cos_integral(3.0)                                                         # needs mpmath
0.119629786008000

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> cos_integral(RealNumber('3.0'))                                                         # needs mpmath
0.119629786008000


The alias Ci can be used instead of cos_integral:

sage: Ci(3.0)                                                                   # needs mpmath
0.119629786008000

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> Ci(RealNumber('3.0'))                                                                   # needs mpmath
0.119629786008000


Compare cos_integral(3.0) to the definition of the value using numerical integration:

sage: a = numerical_integral((cos(x)-1)/x, 0, 3)[0]                             # needs sage.symbolic
sage: abs(N(euler_gamma + log(3)) + a - N(cos_integral(3.0))) < 1e-14           # needs sage.symbolic
True

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> a = numerical_integral((cos(x)-Integer(1))/x, Integer(0), Integer(3))[Integer(0)]                             # needs sage.symbolic
>>> abs(N(euler_gamma + log(Integer(3))) + a - N(cos_integral(RealNumber('3.0')))) < RealNumber('1e-14')           # needs sage.symbolic
True


Arbitrary precision and complex arguments are handled:

sage: N(cos_integral(3), digits=30)                                             # needs sage.symbolic
0.119629786008000327626472281177
sage: cos_integral(ComplexField(100)(3+I))                                      # needs sage.symbolic
0.078134230477495714401983633057 - 0.37814733904787920181190368789*I

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(cos_integral(Integer(3)), digits=Integer(30))                                             # needs sage.symbolic
0.119629786008000327626472281177
>>> cos_integral(ComplexField(Integer(100))(Integer(3)+I))                                      # needs sage.symbolic
0.078134230477495714401983633057 - 0.37814733904787920181190368789*I


The limit $$\operatorname{Ci}(z)$$ as $$z \to \infty$$ is zero:

sage: N(cos_integral(1e23))                                                     # needs mpmath
-3.24053937643003e-24

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(cos_integral(RealNumber('1e23')))                                                     # needs mpmath
-3.24053937643003e-24


Symbolic derivatives and integrals are handled by Sage and Maxima:

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: x = var('x')
sage: f = cos_integral(x)
sage: f.diff(x)
cos(x)/x
sage: f.integrate(x)
x*cos_integral(x) - sin(x)

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> x = var('x')
>>> f = cos_integral(x)
>>> f.diff(x)
cos(x)/x
>>> f.integrate(x)
x*cos_integral(x) - sin(x)


The Nielsen spiral is the parametric plot of (Si(t), Ci(t)):

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: t = var('t')
sage: f(t) = sin_integral(t)
sage: g(t) = cos_integral(t)
sage: P = parametric_plot([f, g], (t, 0.5 ,20))                                 # needs sage.plot
sage: show(P, frame=True, axes=False)                                           # needs sage.plot

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> t = var('t')
>>> __tmp__=var("t"); f = symbolic_expression(sin_integral(t)).function(t)
>>> __tmp__=var("t"); g = symbolic_expression(cos_integral(t)).function(t)
>>> P = parametric_plot([f, g], (t, RealNumber('0.5') ,Integer(20)))                                 # needs sage.plot
>>> show(P, frame=True, axes=False)                                           # needs sage.plot


ALGORITHM:

Numerical evaluation is handled using mpmath, but symbolics are handled by Sage and Maxima.

REFERENCES:

class sage.functions.exp_integral.Function_cosh_integral[source]#

The trigonometric integral $$\operatorname{Chi}(z)$$ defined by

$\operatorname{Chi}(z) = \gamma + \log(z) + \int_0^z \frac{\cosh(t)-1}{t} \; dt,$

see [AS1964] 5.2.4.

EXAMPLES:

sage: z = var('z')                                                              # needs sage.symbolic
sage: cosh_integral(z)                                                          # needs sage.symbolic
cosh_integral(z)
sage: cosh_integral(3.0)                                                        # needs mpmath
4.96039209476561

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> z = var('z')                                                              # needs sage.symbolic
>>> cosh_integral(z)                                                          # needs sage.symbolic
cosh_integral(z)
>>> cosh_integral(RealNumber('3.0'))                                                        # needs mpmath
4.96039209476561


Numerical evaluation for real and complex arguments is handled using mpmath:

sage: cosh_integral(1.0)                                                        # needs mpmath
0.837866940980208

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> cosh_integral(RealNumber('1.0'))                                                        # needs mpmath
0.837866940980208


The alias Chi can be used instead of cosh_integral:

sage: Chi(1.0)                                                                  # needs mpmath
0.837866940980208

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> Chi(RealNumber('1.0'))                                                                  # needs mpmath
0.837866940980208


Here is an example from the mpmath documentation:

sage: f(x) = cosh_integral(x)                                                   # needs sage.symbolic
sage: find_root(f, 0.1, 1.0)                                                    # needs scipy sage.symbolic
0.523822571389...

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> __tmp__=var("x"); f = symbolic_expression(cosh_integral(x)                                                   ).function(x)# needs sage.symbolic
>>> find_root(f, RealNumber('0.1'), RealNumber('1.0'))                                                    # needs scipy sage.symbolic
0.523822571389...


Compare cosh_integral(3.0) to the definition of the value using numerical integration:

sage: a = numerical_integral((cosh(x)-1)/x, 0, 3)[0]                            # needs sage.symbolic
sage: abs(N(euler_gamma + log(3)) + a - N(cosh_integral(3.0))) < 1e-14          # needs sage.symbolic
True

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> a = numerical_integral((cosh(x)-Integer(1))/x, Integer(0), Integer(3))[Integer(0)]                            # needs sage.symbolic
>>> abs(N(euler_gamma + log(Integer(3))) + a - N(cosh_integral(RealNumber('3.0')))) < RealNumber('1e-14')          # needs sage.symbolic
True


Arbitrary precision and complex arguments are handled:

sage: N(cosh_integral(3), digits=30)                                            # needs sage.symbolic
4.96039209476560976029791763669
sage: cosh_integral(ComplexField(100)(3+I))                                     # needs sage.symbolic
3.9096723099686417127843516794 + 3.0547519627014217273323873274*I

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(cosh_integral(Integer(3)), digits=Integer(30))                                            # needs sage.symbolic
4.96039209476560976029791763669
>>> cosh_integral(ComplexField(Integer(100))(Integer(3)+I))                                     # needs sage.symbolic
3.9096723099686417127843516794 + 3.0547519627014217273323873274*I


The limit of $$\operatorname{Chi}(z)$$ as $$z \to \infty$$ is $$\infty$$:

sage: N(cosh_integral(Infinity))                                                # needs mpmath
+infinity

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(cosh_integral(Infinity))                                                # needs mpmath
+infinity


Symbolic derivatives and integrals are handled by Sage and Maxima:

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: x = var('x')
sage: f = cosh_integral(x)
sage: f.diff(x)
cosh(x)/x
sage: f.integrate(x)
x*cosh_integral(x) - sinh(x)

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> x = var('x')
>>> f = cosh_integral(x)
>>> f.diff(x)
cosh(x)/x
>>> f.integrate(x)
x*cosh_integral(x) - sinh(x)


ALGORITHM:

Numerical evaluation is handled using mpmath, but symbolics are handled by Sage and Maxima.

REFERENCES:

class sage.functions.exp_integral.Function_exp_integral[source]#

The generalized complex exponential integral Ei(z) defined by

$\operatorname{Ei}(x) = \int_{-\infty}^x \frac{e^t}{t} \; dt$

for x > 0 and for complex arguments by analytic continuation, see [AS1964] 5.1.2.

EXAMPLES:

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: Ei(10)
Ei(10)
sage: Ei(I)
Ei(I)
sage: Ei(3+I)
Ei(I + 3)
sage: Ei(10r)
Ei(10)

sage: Ei(1.3)                                                                   # needs mpmath
2.72139888023202
sage: Ei(1.3r)                                                                  # needs mpmath
2.7213988802320235

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> Ei(Integer(10))
Ei(10)
>>> Ei(I)
Ei(I)
>>> Ei(Integer(3)+I)
Ei(I + 3)
>>> Ei(10)
Ei(10)

>>> Ei(RealNumber('1.3'))                                                                   # needs mpmath
2.72139888023202
>>> Ei(1.3)                                                                  # needs mpmath
2.7213988802320235


The branch cut for this function is along the negative real axis:

sage: Ei(-3 + 0.1*I)                                                            # needs sage.symbolic
-0.0129379427181693 + 3.13993830250942*I
sage: Ei(-3 - 0.1*I)                                                            # needs sage.symbolic
-0.0129379427181693 - 3.13993830250942*I

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> Ei(-Integer(3) + RealNumber('0.1')*I)                                                            # needs sage.symbolic
-0.0129379427181693 + 3.13993830250942*I
>>> Ei(-Integer(3) - RealNumber('0.1')*I)                                                            # needs sage.symbolic
-0.0129379427181693 - 3.13993830250942*I


The precision for the result is deduced from the precision of the input. Convert the input to a higher precision explicitly if a result with higher precision is desired:

sage: Ei(RealField(300)(1.1))                                                   # needs sage.rings.real_mpfr
2.16737827956340282358378734233807621497112737591639704719499002090327541763352339357795426

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> Ei(RealField(Integer(300))(RealNumber('1.1')))                                                   # needs sage.rings.real_mpfr
2.16737827956340282358378734233807621497112737591639704719499002090327541763352339357795426


ALGORITHM: Uses mpmath.

class sage.functions.exp_integral.Function_exp_integral_e[source]#

The generalized complex exponential integral $$E_n(z)$$ defined by

$E_n(z) = \int_1^{\infty} \frac{e^{-z t}}{t^n} \; dt$

for complex numbers $$n$$ and $$z$$, see [AS1964] 5.1.4.

The special case where $$n = 1$$ is denoted in Sage by exp_integral_e1.

EXAMPLES:

Numerical evaluation is handled using mpmath:

sage: N(exp_integral_e(1, 1))                                                   # needs sage.symbolic
0.219383934395520
sage: exp_integral_e(1, RealField(100)(1))                                      # needs sage.symbolic
0.21938393439552027367716377546

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(exp_integral_e(Integer(1), Integer(1)))                                                   # needs sage.symbolic
0.219383934395520
>>> exp_integral_e(Integer(1), RealField(Integer(100))(Integer(1)))                                      # needs sage.symbolic
0.21938393439552027367716377546


We can compare this to PARI’s evaluation of exponential_integral_1():

sage: N(exponential_integral_1(1))                                              # needs sage.symbolic
0.219383934395520

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(exponential_integral_1(Integer(1)))                                              # needs sage.symbolic
0.219383934395520


We can verify one case of [AS1964] 5.1.45, i.e. $$E_n(z) = z^{n-1}\Gamma(1-n,z)$$:

sage: N(exp_integral_e(2, 3+I))                                                 # needs sage.symbolic
0.00354575823814662 - 0.00973200528288687*I
sage: N((3+I)*gamma(-1, 3+I))                                                   # needs sage.symbolic
0.00354575823814662 - 0.00973200528288687*I

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(exp_integral_e(Integer(2), Integer(3)+I))                                                 # needs sage.symbolic
0.00354575823814662 - 0.00973200528288687*I
>>> N((Integer(3)+I)*gamma(-Integer(1), Integer(3)+I))                                                   # needs sage.symbolic
0.00354575823814662 - 0.00973200528288687*I


Maxima returns the following improper integral as a multiple of exp_integral_e(1,1):

sage: uu = integral(e^(-x)*log(x+1), x, 0, oo); uu                              # needs sage.symbolic
e*exp_integral_e(1, 1)
sage: uu.n(digits=30)                                                           # needs sage.symbolic
0.596347362323194074341078499369

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> uu = integral(e**(-x)*log(x+Integer(1)), x, Integer(0), oo); uu                              # needs sage.symbolic
e*exp_integral_e(1, 1)
>>> uu.n(digits=Integer(30))                                                           # needs sage.symbolic
0.596347362323194074341078499369


Symbolic derivatives and integrals are handled by Sage and Maxima:

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: x = var('x')
sage: f = exp_integral_e(2,x)
sage: f.diff(x)
-exp_integral_e(1, x)
sage: f.integrate(x)
-exp_integral_e(3, x)
sage: f = exp_integral_e(-1, x)
sage: f.integrate(x)
Ei(-x) - gamma(-1, x)

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> x = var('x')
>>> f = exp_integral_e(Integer(2),x)
>>> f.diff(x)
-exp_integral_e(1, x)
>>> f.integrate(x)
-exp_integral_e(3, x)
>>> f = exp_integral_e(-Integer(1), x)
>>> f.integrate(x)
Ei(-x) - gamma(-1, x)


Some special values of exp_integral_e can be simplified. [AS1964] 5.1.23:

sage: exp_integral_e(0, x)                                                      # needs sage.symbolic
e^(-x)/x

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> exp_integral_e(Integer(0), x)                                                      # needs sage.symbolic
e^(-x)/x


[AS1964] 5.1.24:

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: exp_integral_e(6, 0)
1/5
sage: nn = var('nn')
sage: assume(nn > 1)
sage: f = exp_integral_e(nn, 0)
sage: f.simplify()
1/(nn - 1)

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> exp_integral_e(Integer(6), Integer(0))
1/5
>>> nn = var('nn')
>>> assume(nn > Integer(1))
>>> f = exp_integral_e(nn, Integer(0))
>>> f.simplify()
1/(nn - 1)


ALGORITHM:

Numerical evaluation is handled using mpmath, but symbolics are handled by Sage and Maxima.

class sage.functions.exp_integral.Function_exp_integral_e1[source]#

The generalized complex exponential integral $$E_1(z)$$ defined by

$E_1(z) = \int_z^\infty \frac{e^{-t}}{t} \; dt$

see [AS1964] 5.1.4.

EXAMPLES:

sage: exp_integral_e1(x)                                                        # needs sage.symbolic
exp_integral_e1(x)
sage: exp_integral_e1(1.0)                                                      # needs mpmath
0.219383934395520

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> exp_integral_e1(x)                                                        # needs sage.symbolic
exp_integral_e1(x)
>>> exp_integral_e1(RealNumber('1.0'))                                                      # needs mpmath
0.219383934395520


Numerical evaluation is handled using mpmath:

sage: N(exp_integral_e1(1))                                                     # needs sage.symbolic
0.219383934395520
sage: exp_integral_e1(RealField(100)(1))                                        # needs sage.rings.real_mpfr
0.21938393439552027367716377546

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(exp_integral_e1(Integer(1)))                                                     # needs sage.symbolic
0.219383934395520
>>> exp_integral_e1(RealField(Integer(100))(Integer(1)))                                        # needs sage.rings.real_mpfr
0.21938393439552027367716377546


We can compare this to PARI’s evaluation of exponential_integral_1():

sage: N(exp_integral_e1(2.0))                                                   # needs mpmath
0.0489005107080611
sage: N(exponential_integral_1(2.0))                                            # needs sage.rings.real_mpfr
0.0489005107080611

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(exp_integral_e1(RealNumber('2.0')))                                                   # needs mpmath
0.0489005107080611
>>> N(exponential_integral_1(RealNumber('2.0')))                                            # needs sage.rings.real_mpfr
0.0489005107080611


Symbolic derivatives and integrals are handled by Sage and Maxima:

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: x = var('x')
sage: f = exp_integral_e1(x)
sage: f.diff(x)
-e^(-x)/x
sage: f.integrate(x)
-exp_integral_e(2, x)

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> x = var('x')
>>> f = exp_integral_e1(x)
>>> f.diff(x)
-e^(-x)/x
>>> f.integrate(x)
-exp_integral_e(2, x)


ALGORITHM:

Numerical evaluation is handled using mpmath, but symbolics are handled by Sage and Maxima.

class sage.functions.exp_integral.Function_log_integral[source]#

The logarithmic integral $$\operatorname{li}(z)$$ defined by

$\operatorname{li}(x) = \int_0^z \frac{dt}{\ln(t)} = \operatorname{Ei}(\ln(x))$

for x > 1 and by analytic continuation for complex arguments z (see [AS1964] 5.1.3).

EXAMPLES:

Numerical evaluation for real and complex arguments is handled using mpmath:

sage: N(log_integral(3))                                                        # needs sage.symbolic
2.16358859466719
sage: N(log_integral(3), digits=30)                                             # needs sage.symbolic
2.16358859466719197287692236735
sage: log_integral(ComplexField(100)(3+I))                                      # needs sage.symbolic
2.2879892769816826157078450911 + 0.87232935488528370139883806779*I
sage: log_integral(0)                                                           # needs mpmath
0

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(log_integral(Integer(3)))                                                        # needs sage.symbolic
2.16358859466719
>>> N(log_integral(Integer(3)), digits=Integer(30))                                             # needs sage.symbolic
2.16358859466719197287692236735
>>> log_integral(ComplexField(Integer(100))(Integer(3)+I))                                      # needs sage.symbolic
2.2879892769816826157078450911 + 0.87232935488528370139883806779*I
>>> log_integral(Integer(0))                                                           # needs mpmath
0


Symbolic derivatives and integrals are handled by Sage and Maxima:

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: x = var('x')
sage: f = log_integral(x)
sage: f.diff(x)
1/log(x)
sage: f.integrate(x)
x*log_integral(x) - Ei(2*log(x))

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> x = var('x')
>>> f = log_integral(x)
>>> f.diff(x)
1/log(x)
>>> f.integrate(x)
x*log_integral(x) - Ei(2*log(x))


Here is a test from the mpmath documentation. There are 1,925,320,391,606,803,968,923 many prime numbers less than 1e23. The value of log_integral(1e23) is very close to this:

sage: log_integral(1e23)                                                        # needs mpmath
1.92532039161405e21

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> log_integral(RealNumber('1e23'))                                                        # needs mpmath
1.92532039161405e21


ALGORITHM:

Numerical evaluation is handled using mpmath, but symbolics are handled by Sage and Maxima.

REFERENCES:

class sage.functions.exp_integral.Function_log_integral_offset[source]#

The offset logarithmic integral, or Eulerian logarithmic integral, $$\operatorname{Li}(x)$$ is defined by

$\operatorname{Li}(x) = \int_2^x \frac{dt}{\ln(t)} = \operatorname{li}(x)-\operatorname{li}(2)$

for $$x \ge 2$$.

The offset logarithmic integral should also not be confused with the polylogarithm (also denoted by $$\operatorname{Li}(x)$$ ), which is implemented as sage.functions.log.Function_polylog.

$$\operatorname{Li}(x)$$ is identical to $$\operatorname{li}(x)$$ except that the lower limit of integration is $$2$$ rather than $$0$$ to avoid the singularity at $$x = 1$$ of

$\frac{1}{\ln(t)}$

See Function_log_integral for details of $$\operatorname{li}(x)$$. Thus $$\operatorname{Li}(x)$$ can also be represented by

$\operatorname{Li}(x) = \operatorname{li}(x)-\operatorname{li}(2)$

So we have:

sage: li(4.5) - li(2.0) - Li(4.5)                                               # needs mpmath
0.000000000000000

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> li(RealNumber('4.5')) - li(RealNumber('2.0')) - Li(RealNumber('4.5'))                                               # needs mpmath
0.000000000000000


$$\operatorname{Li}(x)$$ is extended to complex arguments $$z$$ by analytic continuation (see [AS1964] 5.1.3):

sage: Li(6.6 + 5.4*I)                                                           # needs sage.symbolic
3.97032201503632 + 2.62311237593572*I

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> Li(RealNumber('6.6') + RealNumber('5.4')*I)                                                           # needs sage.symbolic
3.97032201503632 + 2.62311237593572*I


The function $$\operatorname{Li}$$ is an approximation for the number of primes up to $$x$$. In fact, the famous Riemann Hypothesis is

$|\pi(x) - \operatorname{Li}(x)| \leq \sqrt{x} \log(x).$

For “small” $$x$$, $$\operatorname{Li}(x)$$ is always slightly bigger than $$\pi(x)$$. However it is a theorem that there are very large values of $$x$$ (e.g., around $$10^{316}$$), such that $$\exists x: \pi(x) > \operatorname{Li}(x)$$. See “A new bound for the smallest x with $$\pi(x) > \operatorname{li}(x)$$”, Bays and Hudson, Mathematics of Computation, 69 (2000) 1285-1296.

Note

Definite integration returns a part symbolic and part numerical result. This is because when Li(x) is evaluated it is passed as li(x)-li(2).

EXAMPLES:

Numerical evaluation for real and complex arguments is handled using mpmath:

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: N(log_integral_offset(3))
1.11842481454970
sage: N(log_integral_offset(3), digits=30)
1.11842481454969918803233347815
sage: log_integral_offset(ComplexField(100)(3+I))
1.2428254968641898308632562019 + 0.87232935488528370139883806779*I
sage: log_integral_offset(2)
0
sage: for n in range(1,7):                                                      # needs primecountpy
....:  print('%-10s%-10s%-20s'%(10^n, prime_pi(10^n), N(Li(10^n))))
10        4         5.12043572466980
100       25        29.0809778039621
1000      168       176.564494210035
10000     1229      1245.09205211927
100000    9592      9628.76383727068
1000000   78498     78626.5039956821

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> N(log_integral_offset(Integer(3)))
1.11842481454970
>>> N(log_integral_offset(Integer(3)), digits=Integer(30))
1.11842481454969918803233347815
>>> log_integral_offset(ComplexField(Integer(100))(Integer(3)+I))
1.2428254968641898308632562019 + 0.87232935488528370139883806779*I
>>> log_integral_offset(Integer(2))
0
>>> for n in range(Integer(1),Integer(7)):                                                      # needs primecountpy
...  print('%-10s%-10s%-20s'%(Integer(10)**n, prime_pi(Integer(10)**n), N(Li(Integer(10)**n))))
10        4         5.12043572466980
100       25        29.0809778039621
1000      168       176.564494210035
10000     1229      1245.09205211927
100000    9592      9628.76383727068
1000000   78498     78626.5039956821


Here is a test from the mpmath documentation. There are 1,925,320,391,606,803,968,923 prime numbers less than 1e23. The value of log_integral_offset(1e23) is very close to this:

sage: log_integral_offset(1e23)                                                 # needs mpmath
1.92532039161405e21

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> log_integral_offset(RealNumber('1e23'))                                                 # needs mpmath
1.92532039161405e21


Symbolic derivatives are handled by Sage and integration by Maxima:

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: x = var('x')
sage: f = log_integral_offset(x)
sage: f.diff(x)
1/log(x)
sage: f.integrate(x)
-x*log_integral(2) + x*log_integral(x) - Ei(2*log(x))
sage: Li(x).integrate(x, 2.0, 4.5).n(digits=10)
3.186411697
sage: N(f.integrate(x, 2.0, 3.0))   # abs tol 1e-15
0.601621785860587

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> x = var('x')
>>> f = log_integral_offset(x)
>>> f.diff(x)
1/log(x)
>>> f.integrate(x)
-x*log_integral(2) + x*log_integral(x) - Ei(2*log(x))
>>> Li(x).integrate(x, RealNumber('2.0'), RealNumber('4.5')).n(digits=Integer(10))
3.186411697
>>> N(f.integrate(x, RealNumber('2.0'), RealNumber('3.0')))   # abs tol 1e-15
0.601621785860587


ALGORITHM:

Numerical evaluation is handled using mpmath, but symbolics are handled by Sage and Maxima.

REFERENCES:

class sage.functions.exp_integral.Function_sin_integral[source]#

The trigonometric integral $$\operatorname{Si}(z)$$ defined by

$\operatorname{Si}(z) = \int_0^z \frac{\sin(t)}{t} \; dt,$

see [AS1964] 5.2.1.

EXAMPLES:

Numerical evaluation for real and complex arguments is handled using mpmath:

sage: sin_integral(0)                                                           # needs mpmath
0
sage: sin_integral(0.0)                                                         # needs mpmath
0.000000000000000
sage: sin_integral(3.0)                                                         # needs mpmath
1.84865252799947
sage: N(sin_integral(3), digits=30)                                             # needs sage.symbolic
1.84865252799946825639773025111
sage: sin_integral(ComplexField(100)(3+I))                                      # needs sage.symbolic
2.0277151656451253616038525998 + 0.015210926166954211913653130271*I

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> sin_integral(Integer(0))                                                           # needs mpmath
0
>>> sin_integral(RealNumber('0.0'))                                                         # needs mpmath
0.000000000000000
>>> sin_integral(RealNumber('3.0'))                                                         # needs mpmath
1.84865252799947
>>> N(sin_integral(Integer(3)), digits=Integer(30))                                             # needs sage.symbolic
1.84865252799946825639773025111
>>> sin_integral(ComplexField(Integer(100))(Integer(3)+I))                                      # needs sage.symbolic
2.0277151656451253616038525998 + 0.015210926166954211913653130271*I


The alias Si can be used instead of sin_integral:

sage: Si(3.0)                                                                   # needs mpmath
1.84865252799947

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> Si(RealNumber('3.0'))                                                                   # needs mpmath
1.84865252799947


The limit of $$\operatorname{Si}(z)$$ as $$z \to \infty$$ is $$\pi/2$$:

sage: N(sin_integral(1e23))                                                     # needs mpmath
1.57079632679490
sage: N(pi/2)                                                                   # needs sage.symbolic
1.57079632679490

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(sin_integral(RealNumber('1e23')))                                                     # needs mpmath
1.57079632679490
>>> N(pi/Integer(2))                                                                   # needs sage.symbolic
1.57079632679490


At 200 bits of precision $$\operatorname{Si}(10^{23})$$ agrees with $$\pi/2$$ up to $$10^{-24}$$:

sage: sin_integral(RealField(200)(1e23))                                        # needs sage.rings.real_mpfr
1.5707963267948966192313288218697837425815368604836679189519
sage: N(pi/2, prec=200)                                                         # needs sage.symbolic
1.5707963267948966192313216916397514420985846996875529104875

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> sin_integral(RealField(Integer(200))(RealNumber('1e23')))                                        # needs sage.rings.real_mpfr
1.5707963267948966192313288218697837425815368604836679189519
>>> N(pi/Integer(2), prec=Integer(200))                                                         # needs sage.symbolic
1.5707963267948966192313216916397514420985846996875529104875


The exponential sine integral is analytic everywhere:

sage: sin_integral(-1.0)                                                        # needs mpmath
-0.946083070367183
sage: sin_integral(-2.0)                                                        # needs mpmath
-1.60541297680269
sage: sin_integral(-1e23)                                                       # needs mpmath
-1.57079632679490

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> sin_integral(-RealNumber('1.0'))                                                        # needs mpmath
-0.946083070367183
>>> sin_integral(-RealNumber('2.0'))                                                        # needs mpmath
-1.60541297680269
>>> sin_integral(-RealNumber('1e23'))                                                       # needs mpmath
-1.57079632679490


Symbolic derivatives and integrals are handled by Sage and Maxima:

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: x = var('x')
sage: f = sin_integral(x)
sage: f.diff(x)
sin(x)/x
sage: f.integrate(x)
x*sin_integral(x) + cos(x)
sage: integrate(sin(x)/x, x)
-1/2*I*Ei(I*x) + 1/2*I*Ei(-I*x)

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> x = var('x')
>>> f = sin_integral(x)
>>> f.diff(x)
sin(x)/x
>>> f.integrate(x)
x*sin_integral(x) + cos(x)
>>> integrate(sin(x)/x, x)
-1/2*I*Ei(I*x) + 1/2*I*Ei(-I*x)


Compare values of the functions $$\operatorname{Si}(x)$$ and $$f(x) = (1/2)i \cdot \operatorname{Ei}(-ix) - (1/2)i \cdot \operatorname{Ei}(ix) - \pi/2$$, which are both anti-derivatives of $$\sin(x)/x$$, at some random positive real numbers:

sage: f(x) = 1/2*I*Ei(-I*x) - 1/2*I*Ei(I*x) - pi/2                              # needs sage.symbolic
sage: g(x) = sin_integral(x)                                                    # needs sage.symbolic
sage: R = [abs(RDF.random_element()) for i in range(100)]
sage: all(abs(f(x) - g(x)) < 1e-10 for x in R)                                  # needs sage.symbolic
True

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> __tmp__=var("x"); f = symbolic_expression(Integer(1)/Integer(2)*I*Ei(-I*x) - Integer(1)/Integer(2)*I*Ei(I*x) - pi/Integer(2)                              ).function(x)# needs sage.symbolic
>>> __tmp__=var("x"); g = symbolic_expression(sin_integral(x)                                                    ).function(x)# needs sage.symbolic
>>> R = [abs(RDF.random_element()) for i in range(Integer(100))]
>>> all(abs(f(x) - g(x)) < RealNumber('1e-10') for x in R)                                  # needs sage.symbolic
True


The Nielsen spiral is the parametric plot of (Si(t), Ci(t)):

sage: # needs sage.symbolic
sage: x = var('x')
sage: f(x) = sin_integral(x)
sage: g(x) = cos_integral(x)
sage: P = parametric_plot([f, g], (x, 0.5 ,20))                                 # needs sage.plot
sage: show(P, frame=True, axes=False)                                           # needs sage.plot

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.symbolic
>>> x = var('x')
>>> __tmp__=var("x"); f = symbolic_expression(sin_integral(x)).function(x)
>>> __tmp__=var("x"); g = symbolic_expression(cos_integral(x)).function(x)
>>> P = parametric_plot([f, g], (x, RealNumber('0.5') ,Integer(20)))                                 # needs sage.plot
>>> show(P, frame=True, axes=False)                                           # needs sage.plot


ALGORITHM:

Numerical evaluation is handled using mpmath, but symbolics are handled by Sage and Maxima.

REFERENCES:

class sage.functions.exp_integral.Function_sinh_integral[source]#

The trigonometric integral $$\operatorname{Shi}(z)$$ defined by

$\operatorname{Shi}(z) = \int_0^z \frac{\sinh(t)}{t} \; dt,$

see [AS1964] 5.2.3.

EXAMPLES:

Numerical evaluation for real and complex arguments is handled using mpmath:

sage: sinh_integral(3.0)                                                        # needs mpmath
4.97344047585981
sage: sinh_integral(1.0)                                                        # needs mpmath
1.05725087537573
sage: sinh_integral(-1.0)                                                       # needs mpmath
-1.05725087537573

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> sinh_integral(RealNumber('3.0'))                                                        # needs mpmath
4.97344047585981
>>> sinh_integral(RealNumber('1.0'))                                                        # needs mpmath
1.05725087537573
>>> sinh_integral(-RealNumber('1.0'))                                                       # needs mpmath
-1.05725087537573


The alias Shi can be used instead of sinh_integral:

sage: Shi(3.0)                                                                  # needs mpmath
4.97344047585981

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> Shi(RealNumber('3.0'))                                                                  # needs mpmath
4.97344047585981


Compare sinh_integral(3.0) to the definition of the value using numerical integration:

sage: a = numerical_integral(sinh(x)/x, 0, 3)[0]                                # needs sage.symbolic
sage: abs(a - N(sinh_integral(3))) < 1e-14                                      # needs sage.symbolic
True

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> a = numerical_integral(sinh(x)/x, Integer(0), Integer(3))[Integer(0)]                                # needs sage.symbolic
>>> abs(a - N(sinh_integral(Integer(3)))) < RealNumber('1e-14')                                      # needs sage.symbolic
True


Arbitrary precision and complex arguments are handled:

sage: N(sinh_integral(3), digits=30)                                            # needs sage.symbolic
4.97344047585980679771041838252
sage: sinh_integral(ComplexField(100)(3+I))                                     # needs sage.symbolic
3.9134623660329374406788354078 + 3.0427678212908839256360163759*I

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(sinh_integral(Integer(3)), digits=Integer(30))                                            # needs sage.symbolic
4.97344047585980679771041838252
>>> sinh_integral(ComplexField(Integer(100))(Integer(3)+I))                                     # needs sage.symbolic
3.9134623660329374406788354078 + 3.0427678212908839256360163759*I


The limit $$\operatorname{Shi}(z)$$ as $$z \to \infty$$ is $$\infty$$:

sage: N(sinh_integral(Infinity))                                                # needs mpmath
+infinity

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> N(sinh_integral(Infinity))                                                # needs mpmath
+infinity


Symbolic derivatives and integrals are handled by Sage and Maxima:

sage: x = var('x')                                                              # needs sage.symbolic
sage: f = sinh_integral(x)                                                      # needs sage.symbolic
sage: f.diff(x)                                                                 # needs sage.symbolic
sinh(x)/x

sage: f.integrate(x)                                                            # needs sage.symbolic
x*sinh_integral(x) - cosh(x)

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> x = var('x')                                                              # needs sage.symbolic
>>> f = sinh_integral(x)                                                      # needs sage.symbolic
>>> f.diff(x)                                                                 # needs sage.symbolic
sinh(x)/x

>>> f.integrate(x)                                                            # needs sage.symbolic
x*sinh_integral(x) - cosh(x)


Note that due to some problems with the way Maxima handles these expressions, definite integrals can sometimes give unexpected results (typically when using inexact endpoints) due to inconsistent branching:

sage: integrate(sinh_integral(x), x, 0, 1/2)                                    # needs sage.symbolic
-cosh(1/2) + 1/2*sinh_integral(1/2) + 1
sage: integrate(sinh_integral(x), x, 0, 1/2).n()  # correct                     # needs sage.symbolic
0.125872409703453
sage: integrate(sinh_integral(x), x, 0, 0.5).n()  # fixed in maxima 5.29.1      # needs sage.symbolic
0.125872409703453

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> integrate(sinh_integral(x), x, Integer(0), Integer(1)/Integer(2))                                    # needs sage.symbolic
-cosh(1/2) + 1/2*sinh_integral(1/2) + 1
>>> integrate(sinh_integral(x), x, Integer(0), Integer(1)/Integer(2)).n()  # correct                     # needs sage.symbolic
0.125872409703453
>>> integrate(sinh_integral(x), x, Integer(0), RealNumber('0.5')).n()  # fixed in maxima 5.29.1      # needs sage.symbolic
0.125872409703453


ALGORITHM:

Numerical evaluation is handled using mpmath, but symbolics are handled by Sage and Maxima.

REFERENCES:

sage.functions.exp_integral.exponential_integral_1(x, n=0)[source]#

Returns the exponential integral $$E_1(x)$$. If the optional argument $$n$$ is given, computes list of the first $$n$$ values of the exponential integral $$E_1(x m)$$.

The exponential integral $$E_1(x)$$ is

$E_1(x) = \int_{x}^{\infty} \frac{e^{-t}}{t} \; dt$

INPUT:

• x – a positive real number

• n – (default: 0) a nonnegative integer; if nonzero, then return a list of values E_1(x*m) for m = 1,2,3,…,n. This is useful, e.g., when computing derivatives of L-functions.

OUTPUT:

A real number if n is 0 (the default) or a list of reals if n > 0. The precision is the same as the input, with a default of 53 bits in case the input is exact.

EXAMPLES:

sage: # needs sage.libs.pari sage.rings.real_mpfr
sage: exponential_integral_1(2)
0.0489005107080611
sage: exponential_integral_1(2, 4)  # abs tol 1e-18
[0.0489005107080611, 0.00377935240984891, 0.000360082452162659, 0.0000376656228439245]
sage: exponential_integral_1(40, 5)
[0.000000000000000, 2.22854325868847e-37, 6.33732515501151e-55,
2.02336191509997e-72, 6.88522610630764e-90]
sage: r = exponential_integral_1(RealField(150)(1)); r
0.21938393439552027367716377546012164903104729
sage: parent(r)
Real Field with 150 bits of precision
sage: exponential_integral_1(RealField(150)(100))
3.6835977616820321802351926205081189876552201e-46

sage: exponential_integral_1(0)
+Infinity

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.libs.pari sage.rings.real_mpfr
>>> exponential_integral_1(Integer(2))
0.0489005107080611
>>> exponential_integral_1(Integer(2), Integer(4))  # abs tol 1e-18
[0.0489005107080611, 0.00377935240984891, 0.000360082452162659, 0.0000376656228439245]
>>> exponential_integral_1(Integer(40), Integer(5))
[0.000000000000000, 2.22854325868847e-37, 6.33732515501151e-55,
2.02336191509997e-72, 6.88522610630764e-90]
>>> r = exponential_integral_1(RealField(Integer(150))(Integer(1))); r
0.21938393439552027367716377546012164903104729
>>> parent(r)
Real Field with 150 bits of precision
>>> exponential_integral_1(RealField(Integer(150))(Integer(100)))
3.6835977616820321802351926205081189876552201e-46

>>> exponential_integral_1(Integer(0))
+Infinity


ALGORITHM: use the PARI C-library function pari:eint1.

REFERENCE:

• See Proposition 5.6.12 of Cohen’s book “A Course in Computational Algebraic Number Theory”.