# Miscellaneous Special Functions¶

AUTHORS:

• David Joyner (2006-13-06): initial version

• David Joyner (2006-30-10): bug fixes to pari wrappers of Bessel functions, hypergeometric_U

• William Stein (2008-02): Impose some sanity checks.

• David Joyner (2008-04-23): addition of elliptic integrals

• Eviatar Bach (2013): making elliptic integrals symbolic

This module provides easy access to many of Maxima and PARI’s special functions.

Maxima’s special functions package (which includes spherical harmonic functions, spherical Bessel functions (of the 1st and 2nd kind), and spherical Hankel functions (of the 1st and 2nd kind)) was written by Barton Willis of the University of Nebraska at Kearney. It is released under the terms of the General Public License (GPL).

Support for elliptic functions and integrals was written by Raymond Toy. It is placed under the terms of the General Public License (GPL) that governs the distribution of Maxima.

Next, we summarize some of the properties of the functions implemented here.

• Spherical harmonics: Laplace’s equation in spherical coordinates is:

$\frac{1}{r^2} \frac{\partial}{\partial r} \left( r^2 \frac{\partial f}{\partial r} \right) + \frac{1}{r^2\sin\theta} \frac{\partial}{\partial \theta} \left( \sin\theta \frac{\partial f}{\partial \theta} \right) + \frac{1}{r^2\sin^2\theta} \frac{\partial^2 f}{\partial \varphi^2} = 0.$

Note that the spherical coordinates $$\theta$$ and $$\varphi$$ are defined here as follows: $$\theta$$ is the colatitude or polar angle, ranging from $$0\leq\theta\leq\pi$$ and $$\varphi$$ the azimuth or longitude, ranging from $$0\leq\varphi<2\pi$$.

The general solution which remains finite towards infinity is a linear combination of functions of the form

$r^{-1-\ell} \cos (m \varphi) P_\ell^m (\cos{\theta} )$

and

$r^{-1-\ell} \sin (m \varphi) P_\ell^m (\cos{\theta} )$

where $$P_\ell^m$$ are the associated Legendre polynomials, and with integer parameters $$\ell \ge 0$$ and $$m$$ from $$0$$ to $$\ell$$. Put in another way, the solutions with integer parameters $$\ell \ge 0$$ and $$- \ell\leq m\leq \ell$$, can be written as linear combinations of:

$U_{\ell,m}(r,\theta , \varphi ) = r^{-1-\ell} Y_\ell^m( \theta , \varphi )$

where the functions $$Y$$ are the spherical harmonic functions with parameters $$\ell$$, $$m$$, which can be written as:

$Y_\ell^m( \theta , \varphi ) = (-1)^m \sqrt{ \frac{(2\ell+1)}{4\pi} \frac{(\ell-m)!}{(\ell+m)!} } \, e^{i m \varphi } \, P_\ell^m ( \cos{\theta} ) .$

The spherical harmonics obey the normalisation condition

$\int_{\theta=0}^\pi\int_{\varphi=0}^{2\pi} Y_\ell^mY_{\ell'}^{m'*}\,d\Omega = \delta_{\ell\ell'}\delta_{mm'}\quad\quad d\Omega = \sin\theta\,d\varphi\,d\theta .$
• The incomplete elliptic integrals (of the first kind, etc.) are:

$\begin{split}\begin{array}{c} \displaystyle\int_0^\phi \frac{1}{\sqrt{1 - m\sin(x)^2}}\, dx,\\ \displaystyle\int_0^\phi \sqrt{1 - m\sin(x)^2}\, dx,\\ \displaystyle\int_0^\phi \frac{\sqrt{1-mt^2}}{\sqrt(1 - t^2)}\, dx,\\ \displaystyle\int_0^\phi \frac{1}{\sqrt{1 - m\sin(x)^2\sqrt{1 - n\sin(x)^2}}}\, dx, \end{array}\end{split}$

and the complete ones are obtained by taking $$\phi =\pi/2$$.

REFERENCES:

AUTHORS:

• David Joyner and William Stein

Added 16-02-2008 (wdj): optional calls to scipy and replace all ‘#random’ by ‘…’ (both at the request of William Stein)

Warning

SciPy’s versions are poorly documented and seem less accurate than the Maxima and PARI versions; typically they are limited by hardware floats precision.

class sage.functions.special.EllipticE

Return the incomplete elliptic integral of the second kind:

$E(\varphi\,|\,m)=\int_0^\varphi \sqrt{1 - m\sin(x)^2}\, dx.$

EXAMPLES:

sage: z = var("z")
sage: elliptic_e(z, 1)
elliptic_e(z, 1)
sage: # this is still wrong: must be abs(sin(z)) + 2*round(z/pi)
sage: elliptic_e(z, 1).simplify()
2*round(z/pi) + sin(z)
sage: elliptic_e(z, 0)
z
sage: elliptic_e(0.5, 0.1)  # abs tol 2e-15
0.498011394498832
sage: elliptic_e(1/2, 1/10).n(200)
0.4980113944988315331154610406...


REFERENCES:

class sage.functions.special.EllipticEC

Return the complete elliptic integral of the second kind:

$E(m)=\int_0^{\pi/2} \sqrt{1 - m\sin(x)^2}\, dx.$

EXAMPLES:

sage: elliptic_ec(0.1)
1.53075763689776
sage: elliptic_ec(x).diff()
1/2*(elliptic_ec(x) - elliptic_kc(x))/x


REFERENCES:

class sage.functions.special.EllipticEU

Return Jacobi’s form of the incomplete elliptic integral of the second kind:

$E(u,m)= \int_0^u \mathrm{dn}(x,m)^2\, dx = \int_0^\tau \frac{\sqrt{1-m x^2}}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\, dx.$

where $$\tau = \mathrm{sn}(u, m)$$.

Also, elliptic_eu(u, m) = elliptic_e(asin(sn(u,m)),m).

EXAMPLES:

sage: elliptic_eu (0.5, 0.1)
0.496054551286597


REFERENCES:

class sage.functions.special.EllipticF

Return the incomplete elliptic integral of the first kind.

$F(\varphi\,|\,m)=\int_0^\varphi \frac{dx}{\sqrt{1 - m\sin(x)^2}},$

Taking $$\varphi = \pi/2$$ gives elliptic_kc().

EXAMPLES:

sage: z = var("z")
sage: elliptic_f (z, 0)
z
sage: elliptic_f (z, 1).simplify()
log(tan(1/4*pi + 1/2*z))
sage: elliptic_f (0.2, 0.1)
0.200132506747543


REFERENCES:

class sage.functions.special.EllipticKC

Return the complete elliptic integral of the first kind:

$K(m)=\int_0^{\pi/2} \frac{dx}{\sqrt{1 - m\sin(x)^2}}.$

EXAMPLES:

sage: elliptic_kc(0.5)
1.85407467730137


REFERENCES:

class sage.functions.special.EllipticPi

Return the incomplete elliptic integral of the third kind:

$\Pi(n, t, m) = \int_0^t \frac{dx}{(1 - n \sin(x)^2)\sqrt{1 - m \sin(x)^2}}.$

INPUT:

• n – a real number, called the “characteristic”

• t – a real number, called the “amplitude”

• m – a real number, called the “parameter”

EXAMPLES:

sage: N(elliptic_pi(1, pi/4, 1))
1.14779357469632


Compare the value computed by Maxima to the definition as a definite integral (using GSL):

sage: elliptic_pi(0.1, 0.2, 0.3)
0.200665068220979
sage: numerical_integral(1/(1-0.1*sin(x)^2)/sqrt(1-0.3*sin(x)^2), 0.0, 0.2)
(0.2006650682209791, 2.227829789769088e-15)


REFERENCES:

class sage.functions.special.SphericalHarmonic

Returns the spherical harmonic function $$Y_n^m(\theta, \varphi)$$.

For integers $$n > -1$$, $$|m| \leq n$$, simplification is done automatically. Numeric evaluation is supported for complex $$n$$ and $$m$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: x, y = var('x, y')
sage: spherical_harmonic(3, 2, x, y)
1/8*sqrt(30)*sqrt(7)*cos(x)*e^(2*I*y)*sin(x)^2/sqrt(pi)
sage: spherical_harmonic(3, 2, 1, 2)
1/8*sqrt(30)*sqrt(7)*cos(1)*e^(4*I)*sin(1)^2/sqrt(pi)
sage: spherical_harmonic(3 + I, 2., 1, 2)
-0.351154337307488 - 0.415562233975369*I
sage: latex(spherical_harmonic(3, 2, x, y, hold=True))
Y_{3}^{2}\left(x, y\right)
sage: spherical_harmonic(1, 2, x, y)
0

sage.functions.special.elliptic_eu_f(u, m)

Internal function for numeric evaluation of elliptic_eu, defined as $$E\left(\operatorname{am}(u, m)|m\right)$$, where $$E$$ is the incomplete elliptic integral of the second kind and $$\operatorname{am}$$ is the Jacobi amplitude function.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.functions.special import elliptic_eu_f
sage: elliptic_eu_f(0.5, 0.1)
mpf('0.49605455128659691')

sage.functions.special.elliptic_j(z, prec=53)

Returns the elliptic modular $$j$$-function evaluated at $$z$$.

INPUT:

• z (complex) – a complex number with positive imaginary part.

• prec (default: 53) – precision in bits for the complex field.

OUTPUT:

(complex) The value of $$j(z)$$.

ALGORITHM:

Calls the pari function ellj().

AUTHOR:

John Cremona

EXAMPLES:

sage: elliptic_j(CC(i))
1728.00000000000
sage: elliptic_j(sqrt(-2.0))
8000.00000000000
sage: z = ComplexField(100)(1,sqrt(11))/2
sage: elliptic_j(z)
-32768.000...
sage: elliptic_j(z).real().round()
-32768

sage: tau = (1 + sqrt(-163))/2
sage: (-elliptic_j(tau.n(100)).real().round())^(1/3)
640320


This example shows the need for higher precision than the default one of the $$ComplexField$$, see trac ticket #28355:

sage: -elliptic_j(tau) # rel tol 1e-2
2.62537412640767e17 - 732.558854258998*I
sage: -elliptic_j(tau,75) # rel tol 1e-2
2.625374126407680000000e17 - 0.0001309913593909879441262*I
sage: -elliptic_j(tau,100) # rel tol 1e-2
2.6253741264076799999999999999e17 - 1.3012822400356887122945119790e-12*I
sage: (-elliptic_j(tau, 100).real().round())^(1/3)
640320