# Subschemes of projective space#

AUTHORS:

• David Kohel (2005): initial version.

• William Stein (2005): initial version.

• Volker Braun (2010-12-24): documentation of schemes and refactoring. Added coordinate neighborhoods and is_smooth()

• Ben Hutz (2013) refactoring

class sage.schemes.projective.projective_subscheme.AlgebraicScheme_subscheme_projective(A, polynomials, category=None)[source]#

Construct an algebraic subscheme of projective space.

Warning

You should not create objects of this class directly. The preferred method to construct such subschemes is to use subscheme() method of projective space.

INPUT:

• A – ambient projective space.

• polynomials – single polynomial, ideal or iterable of defining homogeneous polynomials.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P.<x, y, z> = ProjectiveSpace(2, QQ)
sage: P.subscheme([x^2 - y*z])
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
x^2 - y*z

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(Integer(2), QQ, names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> P.subscheme([x**Integer(2) - y*z])
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
x^2 - y*z

affine_patch(i, AA=None)[source]#

Return the $$i^{th}$$ affine patch of this projective scheme.

This is the intersection with this $$i^{th}$$ affine patch of its ambient space.

INPUT:

• i – integer between 0 and dimension of self, inclusive.

• AA – (default: None) ambient affine space, this is constructed if it is not given.

OUTPUT:

An affine algebraic scheme with fixed embedding_morphism() equal to the default projective_embedding() map.

EXAMPLES:

sage: # needs sage.libs.singular
sage: PP = ProjectiveSpace(2, QQ, names='X,Y,Z')
sage: X,Y,Z = PP.gens()
sage: C = PP.subscheme(X^3*Y + Y^3*Z + Z^3*X)
sage: U = C.affine_patch(0); U
Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
Y^3*Z + Z^3 + Y
sage: U.embedding_morphism()
Scheme morphism:
From: Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by: Y^3*Z + Z^3 + Y
To:   Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by: X^3*Y + Y^3*Z + X*Z^3
Defn: Defined on coordinates by sending (Y, Z) to (1 : Y : Z)
sage: U.projective_embedding() is U.embedding_morphism()
True

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.libs.singular
>>> PP = ProjectiveSpace(Integer(2), QQ, names='X,Y,Z')
>>> X,Y,Z = PP.gens()
>>> C = PP.subscheme(X**Integer(3)*Y + Y**Integer(3)*Z + Z**Integer(3)*X)
>>> U = C.affine_patch(Integer(0)); U
Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
Y^3*Z + Z^3 + Y
>>> U.embedding_morphism()
Scheme morphism:
From: Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by: Y^3*Z + Z^3 + Y
To:   Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by: X^3*Y + Y^3*Z + X*Z^3
Defn: Defined on coordinates by sending (Y, Z) to (1 : Y : Z)
>>> U.projective_embedding() is U.embedding_morphism()
True

sage: A.<x,y,z> = AffineSpace(QQ, 3)
sage: X = A.subscheme([x - y*z])
sage: Y = X.projective_embedding(1).codomain()                              # needs sage.libs.singular
sage: Y.affine_patch(1, A).ambient_space() == A                             # needs sage.libs.singular
True

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> A = AffineSpace(QQ, Integer(3), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = A._first_ngens(3)
>>> X = A.subscheme([x - y*z])
>>> Y = X.projective_embedding(Integer(1)).codomain()                              # needs sage.libs.singular
>>> Y.affine_patch(Integer(1), A).ambient_space() == A                             # needs sage.libs.singular
True

sage: P.<u,v,w> = ProjectiveSpace(2, ZZ)
sage: S = P.subscheme([u^2 - v*w])
sage: A.<x, y> = AffineSpace(2, ZZ)
sage: S.affine_patch(1, A)                                                  # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Integer Ring defined by:
x^2 - y

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(Integer(2), ZZ, names=('u', 'v', 'w',)); (u, v, w,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> S = P.subscheme([u**Integer(2) - v*w])
>>> A = AffineSpace(Integer(2), ZZ, names=('x', 'y',)); (x, y,) = A._first_ngens(2)
>>> S.affine_patch(Integer(1), A)                                                  # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Integer Ring defined by:
x^2 - y

degree()[source]#

Return the degree of this projective subscheme.

If $$P(t) = a_{m}t^m + \ldots + a_{0}$$ is the Hilbert polynomial of this subscheme, then the degree is $$a_{m} m!$$.

OUTPUT: Integer.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P.<x,y,z,w,t,u> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 5)
sage: X = P.subscheme([x^7 + x*y*z*t^4 - u^7])
sage: X.degree()                                                            # needs sage.libs.singular
7

sage: P.<x,y,z,w> = ProjectiveSpace(GF(13), 3)
sage: X = P.subscheme([y^3 - w^3, x + 7*z])
sage: X.degree()                                                            # needs sage.libs.singular
3

sage: # needs sage.libs.singular sage.schemes
sage: P.<x,y,z,w,u> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 4)
sage: C = P.curve([x^7 - y*z^3*w^2*u, w*x^2 - y*u^2, z^3 + y^3])
sage: C.degree()
63

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(5), names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w', 't', 'u',)); (x, y, z, w, t, u,) = P._first_ngens(6)
>>> X = P.subscheme([x**Integer(7) + x*y*z*t**Integer(4) - u**Integer(7)])
>>> X.degree()                                                            # needs sage.libs.singular
7

>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(GF(Integer(13)), Integer(3), names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w',)); (x, y, z, w,) = P._first_ngens(4)
>>> X = P.subscheme([y**Integer(3) - w**Integer(3), x + Integer(7)*z])
>>> X.degree()                                                            # needs sage.libs.singular
3

>>> # needs sage.libs.singular sage.schemes
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(4), names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w', 'u',)); (x, y, z, w, u,) = P._first_ngens(5)
>>> C = P.curve([x**Integer(7) - y*z**Integer(3)*w**Integer(2)*u, w*x**Integer(2) - y*u**Integer(2), z**Integer(3) + y**Integer(3)])
>>> C.degree()
63

dimension()[source]#

Return the dimension of the projective algebraic subscheme.

OUTPUT:

Integer.

EXAMPLES:

sage: # needs sage.libs.singular
sage: P2.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(2, QQ)
sage: P2.subscheme([]).dimension()
2
sage: P2.subscheme([x]).dimension()
1
sage: P2.subscheme([x^5]).dimension()
1
sage: P2.subscheme([x^2 + y^2 - z^2]).dimension()
1
sage: P2.subscheme([x*(x-z), y*(y-z)]).dimension()
0

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.libs.singular
>>> P2 = ProjectiveSpace(Integer(2), QQ, names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P2._first_ngens(3)
>>> P2.subscheme([]).dimension()
2
>>> P2.subscheme([x]).dimension()
1
>>> P2.subscheme([x**Integer(5)]).dimension()
1
>>> P2.subscheme([x**Integer(2) + y**Integer(2) - z**Integer(2)]).dimension()
1
>>> P2.subscheme([x*(x-z), y*(y-z)]).dimension()
0


Something less obvious:

sage: P3.<x,y,z,w,t> = ProjectiveSpace(4, QQ)
sage: X = P3.subscheme([x^2, x^2*y^2 + z^2*t^2, z^2 - w^2, 10*x^2 + w^2 - z^2])
sage: X
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 4 over Rational Field defined by:
x^2,
x^2*y^2 + z^2*t^2,
z^2 - w^2,
10*x^2 - z^2 + w^2
sage: X.dimension()                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
1

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P3 = ProjectiveSpace(Integer(4), QQ, names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w', 't',)); (x, y, z, w, t,) = P3._first_ngens(5)
>>> X = P3.subscheme([x**Integer(2), x**Integer(2)*y**Integer(2) + z**Integer(2)*t**Integer(2), z**Integer(2) - w**Integer(2), Integer(10)*x**Integer(2) + w**Integer(2) - z**Integer(2)])
>>> X
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 4 over Rational Field defined by:
x^2,
x^2*y^2 + z^2*t^2,
z^2 - w^2,
10*x^2 - z^2 + w^2
>>> X.dimension()                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
1

dual()[source]#

Return the projective dual of the given subscheme of projective space.

INPUT:

• X – A subscheme of projective space. At present, X is required to be an irreducible and reduced hypersurface defined over $$\QQ$$ or a finite field.

OUTPUT:

• The dual of X as a subscheme of the dual projective space.

EXAMPLES:

The dual of a smooth conic in the plane is also a smooth conic:

sage: R.<x, y, z> = QQ[]
sage: P.<x, y, z> = ProjectiveSpace(2, QQ)
sage: I = R.ideal(x^2 + y^2 + z^2)
sage: X = P.subscheme(I)
sage: X.dual()                                                              # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by:
y0^2 + y1^2 + y2^2

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> R = QQ['x, y, z']; (x, y, z,) = R._first_ngens(3)
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(Integer(2), QQ, names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> I = R.ideal(x**Integer(2) + y**Integer(2) + z**Integer(2))
>>> X = P.subscheme(I)
>>> X.dual()                                                              # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by:
y0^2 + y1^2 + y2^2


The dual of the twisted cubic curve in projective 3-space is a singular quartic surface. In the following example, we compute the dual of this surface, which by double duality is equal to the twisted cubic itself. The output is the twisted cubic as an intersection of three quadrics:

sage: R.<x, y, z, w> = QQ[]
sage: P.<x, y, z, w> = ProjectiveSpace(3, QQ)
sage: I = R.ideal(y^2*z^2 - 4*x*z^3 - 4*y^3*w + 18*x*y*z*w - 27*x^2*w^2)
sage: X = P.subscheme(I)
sage: X.dual()                                                              # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over
Rational Field defined by:
y2^2 - y1*y3,
y1*y2 - y0*y3,
y1^2 - y0*y2

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> R = QQ['x, y, z, w']; (x, y, z, w,) = R._first_ngens(4)
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(Integer(3), QQ, names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w',)); (x, y, z, w,) = P._first_ngens(4)
>>> I = R.ideal(y**Integer(2)*z**Integer(2) - Integer(4)*x*z**Integer(3) - Integer(4)*y**Integer(3)*w + Integer(18)*x*y*z*w - Integer(27)*x**Integer(2)*w**Integer(2))
>>> X = P.subscheme(I)
>>> X.dual()                                                              # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over
Rational Field defined by:
y2^2 - y1*y3,
y1*y2 - y0*y3,
y1^2 - y0*y2


The singular locus of the quartic surface in the last example is itself supported on a twisted cubic:

sage: X.Jacobian().radical()                                                # needs sage.libs.singular
Ideal (z^2 - 3*y*w, y*z - 9*x*w, y^2 - 3*x*z) of Multivariate
Polynomial Ring in x, y, z, w over Rational Field

>>> from sage.all import *
Ideal (z^2 - 3*y*w, y*z - 9*x*w, y^2 - 3*x*z) of Multivariate
Polynomial Ring in x, y, z, w over Rational Field


An example over a finite field:

sage: R = PolynomialRing(GF(61), 'a,b,c')
sage: P.<a, b, c> = ProjectiveSpace(2, R.base_ring())
sage: X = P.subscheme(R.ideal(a*a + 2*b*b + 3*c*c))
sage: X.dual()                                                              # needs sage.libs.singular sage.rings.finite_rings
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over
Finite Field of size 61 defined by:
y0^2 - 30*y1^2 - 20*y2^2

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> R = PolynomialRing(GF(Integer(61)), 'a,b,c')
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(Integer(2), R.base_ring(), names=('a', 'b', 'c',)); (a, b, c,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> X = P.subscheme(R.ideal(a*a + Integer(2)*b*b + Integer(3)*c*c))
>>> X.dual()                                                              # needs sage.libs.singular sage.rings.finite_rings
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over
Finite Field of size 61 defined by:
y0^2 - 30*y1^2 - 20*y2^2

intersection_multiplicity(X, P)[source]#

Return the intersection multiplicity of this subscheme and the subscheme X at the point P.

This uses the intersection_multiplicity function for affine subschemes on affine patches of this subscheme and X that contain P.

INPUT:

• X – subscheme in the same ambient space as this subscheme.

• P – a point in the intersection of this subscheme with X.

OUTPUT: An integer.

EXAMPLES:

sage: # needs sage.schemes
sage: P.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(GF(5), 2)
sage: C = Curve([x^4 - z^2*y^2], P)
sage: D = Curve([y^4*z - x^5 - x^3*z^2], P)
sage: Q1 = P([0,1,0])
sage: C.intersection_multiplicity(D, Q1)                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
4
sage: Q2 = P([0,0,1])
sage: C.intersection_multiplicity(D, Q2)                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
6

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.schemes
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(GF(Integer(5)), Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> C = Curve([x**Integer(4) - z**Integer(2)*y**Integer(2)], P)
>>> D = Curve([y**Integer(4)*z - x**Integer(5) - x**Integer(3)*z**Integer(2)], P)
>>> Q1 = P([Integer(0),Integer(1),Integer(0)])
>>> C.intersection_multiplicity(D, Q1)                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
4
>>> Q2 = P([Integer(0),Integer(0),Integer(1)])
>>> C.intersection_multiplicity(D, Q2)                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
6

sage: # needs sage.rings.number_field
sage: R.<a> = QQ[]
sage: K.<b> = NumberField(a^4 + 1)
sage: P.<x,y,z,w> = ProjectiveSpace(K, 3)
sage: X = P.subscheme([x^2 + y^2 - z*w])
sage: Y = P.subscheme([y*z - x*w, z - w])
sage: Q1 = P([b^2,1,0,0])
sage: X.intersection_multiplicity(Y, Q1)                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
1
sage: Q2 = P([1/2*b^3 - 1/2*b, 1/2*b^3 - 1/2*b, 1, 1])
sage: X.intersection_multiplicity(Y, Q2)                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
1

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.rings.number_field
>>> R = QQ['a']; (a,) = R._first_ngens(1)
>>> K = NumberField(a**Integer(4) + Integer(1), names=('b',)); (b,) = K._first_ngens(1)
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(K, Integer(3), names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w',)); (x, y, z, w,) = P._first_ngens(4)
>>> X = P.subscheme([x**Integer(2) + y**Integer(2) - z*w])
>>> Y = P.subscheme([y*z - x*w, z - w])
>>> Q1 = P([b**Integer(2),Integer(1),Integer(0),Integer(0)])
>>> X.intersection_multiplicity(Y, Q1)                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
1
>>> Q2 = P([Integer(1)/Integer(2)*b**Integer(3) - Integer(1)/Integer(2)*b, Integer(1)/Integer(2)*b**Integer(3) - Integer(1)/Integer(2)*b, Integer(1), Integer(1)])
>>> X.intersection_multiplicity(Y, Q2)                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
1

sage: P.<x,y,z,w> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 3)
sage: X = P.subscheme([x^2 - z^2, y^3 - w*x^2])
sage: Y = P.subscheme([w^2 - 2*x*y + z^2, y^2 - w^2])
sage: Q = P([1,1,-1,1])
sage: X.intersection_multiplicity(Y, Q)                                     # needs sage.libs.singular
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: the intersection of this subscheme and (=Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 3
over Rational Field defined by: z^2 + w^2 - 2*y, y^2 - w^2)
must be proper and finite

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(3), names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w',)); (x, y, z, w,) = P._first_ngens(4)
>>> X = P.subscheme([x**Integer(2) - z**Integer(2), y**Integer(3) - w*x**Integer(2)])
>>> Y = P.subscheme([w**Integer(2) - Integer(2)*x*y + z**Integer(2), y**Integer(2) - w**Integer(2)])
>>> Q = P([Integer(1),Integer(1),-Integer(1),Integer(1)])
>>> X.intersection_multiplicity(Y, Q)                                     # needs sage.libs.singular
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: the intersection of this subscheme and (=Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 3
over Rational Field defined by: z^2 + w^2 - 2*y, y^2 - w^2)
must be proper and finite

is_smooth(point=None)[source]#

Test whether the algebraic subscheme is smooth.

INPUT:

• point – A point or None (default). The point to test smoothness at.

OUTPUT:

Boolean. If no point was specified, returns whether the algebraic subscheme is smooth everywhere. Otherwise, smoothness at the specified point is tested.

EXAMPLES:

sage: # needs sage.libs.singular
sage: P2.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(2, QQ)
sage: cuspidal_curve = P2.subscheme([y^2*z - x^3])
sage: cuspidal_curve
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
-x^3 + y^2*z
sage: cuspidal_curve.is_smooth([1,1,1])
True
sage: cuspidal_curve.is_smooth([0,0,1])
False
sage: cuspidal_curve.is_smooth()
False
sage: P2.subscheme([y^2*z - x^3 + z^3 + 1/10*x*y*z]).is_smooth()
True

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.libs.singular
>>> P2 = ProjectiveSpace(Integer(2), QQ, names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P2._first_ngens(3)
>>> cuspidal_curve = P2.subscheme([y**Integer(2)*z - x**Integer(3)])
>>> cuspidal_curve
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
-x^3 + y^2*z
>>> cuspidal_curve.is_smooth([Integer(1),Integer(1),Integer(1)])
True
>>> cuspidal_curve.is_smooth([Integer(0),Integer(0),Integer(1)])
False
>>> cuspidal_curve.is_smooth()
False
>>> P2.subscheme([y**Integer(2)*z - x**Integer(3) + z**Integer(3) + Integer(1)/Integer(10)*x*y*z]).is_smooth()
True

multiplicity(P)[source]#

Return the multiplicity of P on this subscheme.

This is computed as the multiplicity of the corresponding point on an affine patch of this subscheme that contains P. This subscheme must be defined over a field. An error is returned if P not a point on this subscheme.

INPUT:

• P – a point on this subscheme.

OUTPUT:

An integer.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P.<x,y,z,w,t> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 4)
sage: X = P.subscheme([y^2 - x*t, w^7 - t*w*x^5 - z^7])
sage: Q1 = P([0,0,1,1,1])
sage: X.multiplicity(Q1)                                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
1
sage: Q2 = P([1,0,0,0,0])
sage: X.multiplicity(Q2)                                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
3
sage: Q3 = P([0,0,0,0,1])
sage: X.multiplicity(Q3)                                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
7

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(4), names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w', 't',)); (x, y, z, w, t,) = P._first_ngens(5)
>>> X = P.subscheme([y**Integer(2) - x*t, w**Integer(7) - t*w*x**Integer(5) - z**Integer(7)])
>>> Q1 = P([Integer(0),Integer(0),Integer(1),Integer(1),Integer(1)])
>>> X.multiplicity(Q1)                                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
1
>>> Q2 = P([Integer(1),Integer(0),Integer(0),Integer(0),Integer(0)])
>>> X.multiplicity(Q2)                                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
3
>>> Q3 = P([Integer(0),Integer(0),Integer(0),Integer(0),Integer(1)])
>>> X.multiplicity(Q3)                                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
7

sage: # needs sage.rings.real_mpfr
sage: P.<x,y,z,w> = ProjectiveSpace(CC, 3)
sage: X = P.subscheme([z^5*x^2*w - y^8])
sage: Q = P([2,0,0,1])
sage: X.multiplicity(Q)                                                     # needs sage.libs.singular
5

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.rings.real_mpfr
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(CC, Integer(3), names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w',)); (x, y, z, w,) = P._first_ngens(4)
>>> X = P.subscheme([z**Integer(5)*x**Integer(2)*w - y**Integer(8)])
>>> Q = P([Integer(2),Integer(0),Integer(0),Integer(1)])
>>> X.multiplicity(Q)                                                     # needs sage.libs.singular
5

sage: # needs sage.libs.singular sage.schemes
sage: P.<x,y,z,w> = ProjectiveSpace(GF(29), 3)
sage: C = Curve([y^17 - x^5*w^4*z^8, x*y - z^2], P)
sage: Q = P([3,0,0,1])
sage: C.multiplicity(Q)
8

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.libs.singular sage.schemes
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(GF(Integer(29)), Integer(3), names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w',)); (x, y, z, w,) = P._first_ngens(4)
>>> C = Curve([y**Integer(17) - x**Integer(5)*w**Integer(4)*z**Integer(8), x*y - z**Integer(2)], P)
>>> Q = P([Integer(3),Integer(0),Integer(0),Integer(1)])
>>> C.multiplicity(Q)
8

neighborhood(point)[source]#

Return an affine algebraic subscheme isomorphic to a neighborhood of the point.

INPUT:

• point – a point of the projective subscheme.

OUTPUT:

An affine algebraic scheme (polynomial equations in affine space) result such that

• embedding_morphism is an isomorphism to a neighborhood of point

• embedding_center is mapped to point.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P.<x,y,z>= ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 2)
sage: S = P.subscheme(x + 2*y + 3*z)
sage: s = S.point([0,-3,2]); s
(0 : -3/2 : 1)
sage: patch = S.neighborhood(s); patch
Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
x + 3*z
sage: patch.embedding_morphism()
Scheme morphism:
From: Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by: x + 3*z
To:   Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by: x + 2*y + 3*z
Defn: Defined on coordinates by sending (x, z) to (x : -3/2 : z + 1)
sage: patch.embedding_center()
(0, 0)
sage: patch.embedding_morphism()([0,0])
(0 : -3/2 : 1)
sage: patch.embedding_morphism()(patch.embedding_center())
(0 : -3/2 : 1)

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> S = P.subscheme(x + Integer(2)*y + Integer(3)*z)
>>> s = S.point([Integer(0),-Integer(3),Integer(2)]); s
(0 : -3/2 : 1)
>>> patch = S.neighborhood(s); patch
Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
x + 3*z
>>> patch.embedding_morphism()
Scheme morphism:
From: Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by: x + 3*z
To:   Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by: x + 2*y + 3*z
Defn: Defined on coordinates by sending (x, z) to (x : -3/2 : z + 1)
>>> patch.embedding_center()
(0, 0)
>>> patch.embedding_morphism()([Integer(0),Integer(0)])
(0 : -3/2 : 1)
>>> patch.embedding_morphism()(patch.embedding_center())
(0 : -3/2 : 1)

nth_iterate(f, n)[source]#

The nth forward image of this scheme by the map f.

INPUT:

OUTPUT:

• A subscheme in f.codomain()

EXAMPLES:

sage: P.<x,y,z,w> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 3)
sage: f = DynamicalSystem_projective([y^2, z^2, x^2, w^2])                  # needs sage.schemes
sage: f.nth_iterate(P.subscheme([x - w, y - z]), 3)                         # needs sage.libs.singular sage.schemes
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by:
y - z,
x - w

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(3), names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w',)); (x, y, z, w,) = P._first_ngens(4)
>>> f = DynamicalSystem_projective([y**Integer(2), z**Integer(2), x**Integer(2), w**Integer(2)])                  # needs sage.schemes
>>> f.nth_iterate(P.subscheme([x - w, y - z]), Integer(3))                         # needs sage.libs.singular sage.schemes
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by:
y - z,
x - w

sage: PS.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, 2)
sage: f = DynamicalSystem_projective([x^2, y^2, z^2])                       # needs sage.schemes
sage: X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
sage: X.nth_iterate(f, -2)                                                  # needs sage.libs.singular sage.schemes
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: must be a forward orbit

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> PS = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = PS._first_ngens(3)
>>> f = DynamicalSystem_projective([x**Integer(2), y**Integer(2), z**Integer(2)])                       # needs sage.schemes
>>> X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
>>> X.nth_iterate(f, -Integer(2))                                                  # needs sage.libs.singular sage.schemes
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: must be a forward orbit

sage: PS.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, 2)
sage: P2.<u,v,w> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 2)
sage: H = Hom(PS, P2)
sage: f = H([x^2, y^2, z^2])
sage: X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
sage: X.nth_iterate(f, 2)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: map must be a dynamical system for iteration

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> PS = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = PS._first_ngens(3)
>>> P2 = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(2), names=('u', 'v', 'w',)); (u, v, w,) = P2._first_ngens(3)
>>> H = Hom(PS, P2)
>>> f = H([x**Integer(2), y**Integer(2), z**Integer(2)])
>>> X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
>>> X.nth_iterate(f, Integer(2))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: map must be a dynamical system for iteration

sage: PS.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 2)
sage: f = DynamicalSystem_projective([x^2, y^2, z^2])                       # needs sage.schemes
sage: X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
sage: X.nth_iterate(f, 2.5)                                                 # needs sage.schemes
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Attempt to coerce non-integral RealNumber to Integer

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> PS = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = PS._first_ngens(3)
>>> f = DynamicalSystem_projective([x**Integer(2), y**Integer(2), z**Integer(2)])                       # needs sage.schemes
>>> X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
>>> X.nth_iterate(f, RealNumber('2.5'))                                                 # needs sage.schemes
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Attempt to coerce non-integral RealNumber to Integer

orbit(f, N)[source]#

Return the orbit of this scheme by f.

If $$N$$ is an integer it returns $$[self,f(self),\ldots,f^N(self)]$$. If $$N$$ is a list or tuple $$N=[m,k]$$ it returns $$[f^m(self),\ldots,f^k(self)$$].

INPUT:

• f – a DynamicalSystem_projective with self in f.domain()

• N – a non-negative integer or list or tuple of two non-negative integers

OUTPUT:

• a list of projective subschemes

EXAMPLES:

sage: # needs sage.libs.singular sage.schemes
sage: P.<x,y,z,w> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 3)
sage: f = DynamicalSystem_projective([(x-2*y)^2, (x-2*z)^2,
....:                                 (x-2*w)^2, x^2])
sage: f.orbit(P.subscheme([x]), 5)
[Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: x,
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: w,
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: z - w,
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: y - z,
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: x - y,
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: x - w]

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.libs.singular sage.schemes
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(3), names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w',)); (x, y, z, w,) = P._first_ngens(4)
>>> f = DynamicalSystem_projective([(x-Integer(2)*y)**Integer(2), (x-Integer(2)*z)**Integer(2),
...                                 (x-Integer(2)*w)**Integer(2), x**Integer(2)])
>>> f.orbit(P.subscheme([x]), Integer(5))
[Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: x,
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: w,
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: z - w,
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: y - z,
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: x - y,
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by: x - w]

sage: PS.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 2)
sage: P1.<u,v> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 1)
sage: H = Hom(PS, P1)
sage: f = H([x^2, y^2])
sage: X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
sage: X.orbit(f, 2)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: map must be a dynamical system for iteration

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> PS = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = PS._first_ngens(3)
>>> P1 = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(1), names=('u', 'v',)); (u, v,) = P1._first_ngens(2)
>>> H = Hom(PS, P1)
>>> f = H([x**Integer(2), y**Integer(2)])
>>> X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
>>> X.orbit(f, Integer(2))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: map must be a dynamical system for iteration

sage: PS.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 2)
sage: f = DynamicalSystem_projective([x^2, y^2, z^2])                       # needs sage.schemes
sage: X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
sage: X.orbit(f, [-1,2])                                                    # needs sage.schemes
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: orbit bounds must be non-negative

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> PS = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = PS._first_ngens(3)
>>> f = DynamicalSystem_projective([x**Integer(2), y**Integer(2), z**Integer(2)])                       # needs sage.schemes
>>> X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
>>> X.orbit(f, [-Integer(1),Integer(2)])                                                    # needs sage.schemes
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: orbit bounds must be non-negative

point(v, check=True)[source]#

Create a point on this projective subscheme.

INPUT:

• v – anything that defines a point

• check – boolean (default: True); whether to check the defining data for consistency

OUTPUT: A point of the subscheme.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P2.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 2)
sage: X = P2.subscheme([x - y, y - z])
sage: X.point([1,1,1])
(1 : 1 : 1)

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P2 = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P2._first_ngens(3)
>>> X = P2.subscheme([x - y, y - z])
>>> X.point([Integer(1),Integer(1),Integer(1)])
(1 : 1 : 1)

sage: P2.<x,y> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 1)
sage: X = P2.subscheme([y])
sage: X.point(infinity)
(1 : 0)

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P2 = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(1), names=('x', 'y',)); (x, y,) = P2._first_ngens(2)
>>> X = P2.subscheme([y])
>>> X.point(infinity)
(1 : 0)

sage: P.<x,y> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 1)
sage: X = P.subscheme(x^2 + 2*y^2)
sage: X.point(infinity)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Coordinates [1, 0] do not define a point on Closed subscheme
of Projective Space of dimension 1 over Rational Field defined by:
x^2 + 2*y^2

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(1), names=('x', 'y',)); (x, y,) = P._first_ngens(2)
>>> X = P.subscheme(x**Integer(2) + Integer(2)*y**Integer(2))
>>> X.point(infinity)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Coordinates [1, 0] do not define a point on Closed subscheme
of Projective Space of dimension 1 over Rational Field defined by:
x^2 + 2*y^2

preimage(f, k=1, check=True)[source]#

The subscheme that maps to this scheme by the map $$f^k$$.

In particular, $$f^{-k}(V(h_1,\ldots,h_t)) = V(h_1 \circ f^k, \ldots, h_t \circ f^k)$$. Map must be a morphism and also must be an endomorphism for $$k > 1$$.

INPUT:

• f – a map whose codomain contains this scheme

• k – a positive integer

• check – Boolean, if False no input checking is done

OUTPUT:

a subscheme in the domain of f

EXAMPLES:

sage: PS.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, 2)
sage: H = End(PS)
sage: f = H([y^2, x^2, z^2])
sage: X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
sage: X.preimage(f)                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Integer Ring
defined by:
-x^2 + y^2

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> PS = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = PS._first_ngens(3)
>>> H = End(PS)
>>> f = H([y**Integer(2), x**Integer(2), z**Integer(2)])
>>> X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
>>> X.preimage(f)                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Integer Ring
defined by:
-x^2 + y^2

sage: P.<x,y,z,w,t> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 4)
sage: H = End(P)
sage: f = H([x^2 - y^2, y^2, z^2, w^2, t^2 + w^2])
sage: f.rational_preimages(P.subscheme([x - z, t^2, w - t]))                # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 4 over Rational Field
defined by:
x^2 - y^2 - z^2,
w^4 + 2*w^2*t^2 + t^4,
-t^2

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(4), names=('x', 'y', 'z', 'w', 't',)); (x, y, z, w, t,) = P._first_ngens(5)
>>> H = End(P)
>>> f = H([x**Integer(2) - y**Integer(2), y**Integer(2), z**Integer(2), w**Integer(2), t**Integer(2) + w**Integer(2)])
>>> f.rational_preimages(P.subscheme([x - z, t**Integer(2), w - t]))                # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 4 over Rational Field
defined by:
x^2 - y^2 - z^2,
w^4 + 2*w^2*t^2 + t^4,
-t^2

sage: P1.<x,y> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 1)
sage: P3.<u,v,w,t> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 3)
sage: H = Hom(P1, P3)
sage: X = P3.subscheme([u - v, 2*u - w, u + t])
sage: f = H([x^2, y^2, x^2 + y^2, x*y])
sage: X.preimage(f)                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 1 over Rational Field
defined by:
x^2 - y^2,
x^2 - y^2,
x^2 + x*y

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P1 = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(1), names=('x', 'y',)); (x, y,) = P1._first_ngens(2)
>>> P3 = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(3), names=('u', 'v', 'w', 't',)); (u, v, w, t,) = P3._first_ngens(4)
>>> H = Hom(P1, P3)
>>> X = P3.subscheme([u - v, Integer(2)*u - w, u + t])
>>> f = H([x**Integer(2), y**Integer(2), x**Integer(2) + y**Integer(2), x*y])
>>> X.preimage(f)                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 1 over Rational Field
defined by:
x^2 - y^2,
x^2 - y^2,
x^2 + x*y

sage: P1.<x,y> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 1)
sage: P3.<u,v,w,t> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 3)
sage: H = Hom(P3, P1)
sage: X = P1.subscheme([x - y])
sage: f = H([u^2, v^2])
sage: X.preimage(f)                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: map must be a morphism

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P1 = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(1), names=('x', 'y',)); (x, y,) = P1._first_ngens(2)
>>> P3 = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(3), names=('u', 'v', 'w', 't',)); (u, v, w, t,) = P3._first_ngens(4)
>>> H = Hom(P3, P1)
>>> X = P1.subscheme([x - y])
>>> f = H([u**Integer(2), v**Integer(2)])
>>> X.preimage(f)                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: map must be a morphism

sage: PS.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, 2)
sage: H = End(PS)
sage: f = H([x^2, x^2, x^2])
sage: X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
sage: X.preimage(f)                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: map must be a morphism

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> PS = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = PS._first_ngens(3)
>>> H = End(PS)
>>> f = H([x**Integer(2), x**Integer(2), x**Integer(2)])
>>> X = PS.subscheme([x - y])
>>> X.preimage(f)                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: map must be a morphism

sage: PS.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, 2)
sage: P1.<u,v> = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, 1)
sage: Y = P1.subscheme([u^2 - v^2])
sage: H = End(PS)
sage: f = H([x^2, y^2, z^2])
sage: Y.preimage(f)                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: subscheme must be in ambient space of codomain

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> PS = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = PS._first_ngens(3)
>>> P1 = ProjectiveSpace(ZZ, Integer(1), names=('u', 'v',)); (u, v,) = P1._first_ngens(2)
>>> Y = P1.subscheme([u**Integer(2) - v**Integer(2)])
>>> H = End(PS)
>>> f = H([x**Integer(2), y**Integer(2), z**Integer(2)])
>>> Y.preimage(f)                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: subscheme must be in ambient space of codomain

sage: P.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 2)
sage: Y = P.subscheme([x - y])
sage: H = End(P)
sage: f = H([x^2, y^2, z^2])
sage: Y.preimage(f, k=2)                                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by:
x^4 - y^4

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> Y = P.subscheme([x - y])
>>> H = End(P)
>>> f = H([x**Integer(2), y**Integer(2), z**Integer(2)])
>>> Y.preimage(f, k=Integer(2))                                                    # needs sage.libs.singular
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
defined by:
x^4 - y^4

veronese_embedding(d, CS=None, order='lex')[source]#

Return the degree d Veronese embedding of this projective subscheme.

INPUT:

• d – a positive integer.

• CS – a projective ambient space to embed into. If the projective ambient space of this subscheme is of dimension $$N$$, the dimension of CS must be $$\binom{N + d}{d} - 1$$. This is constructed if not specified. Default: None.

• order – a monomial order to use to arrange the monomials defining the embedding. The monomials will be arranged from greatest to least with respect to this order. Default: 'lex'.

OUTPUT:

• a scheme morphism from this subscheme to its image by the degree d Veronese embedding.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 2)
sage: L = P.subscheme([y - x])
sage: v = L.veronese_embedding(2); v                                        # needs sage.libs.singular
Scheme morphism:
From: Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2
over Rational Field defined by: -x + y
To:   Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 5
over Rational Field defined by:
-x4^2 + x3*x5,
x2 - x4,
x1 - x3,
x0 - x3
Defn: Defined on coordinates by sending (x : y : z) to
(x^2 : x*y : x*z : y^2 : y*z : z^2)
sage: v.codomain().degree()                                                 # needs sage.libs.singular
2
sage: C = P.subscheme([y*z - x^2])
sage: C.veronese_embedding(2).codomain().degree()                           # needs sage.libs.singular
4

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> L = P.subscheme([y - x])
>>> v = L.veronese_embedding(Integer(2)); v                                        # needs sage.libs.singular
Scheme morphism:
From: Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 2
over Rational Field defined by: -x + y
To:   Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 5
over Rational Field defined by:
-x4^2 + x3*x5,
x2 - x4,
x1 - x3,
x0 - x3
Defn: Defined on coordinates by sending (x : y : z) to
(x^2 : x*y : x*z : y^2 : y*z : z^2)
>>> v.codomain().degree()                                                 # needs sage.libs.singular
2
>>> C = P.subscheme([y*z - x**Integer(2)])
>>> C.veronese_embedding(Integer(2)).codomain().degree()                           # needs sage.libs.singular
4


twisted cubic:

sage: P.<x,y> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 1)
sage: Q.<u,v,s,t> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 3)
sage: P.subscheme([]).veronese_embedding(3, Q)                              # needs sage.libs.singular
Scheme morphism:
From: Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 1
over Rational Field defined by: (no polynomials)
To:   Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3
over Rational Field defined by:
-s^2 + v*t,
-v*s + u*t,
-v^2 + u*s
Defn: Defined on coordinates by sending (x : y) to
(x^3 : x^2*y : x*y^2 : y^3)

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(1), names=('x', 'y',)); (x, y,) = P._first_ngens(2)
>>> Q = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(3), names=('u', 'v', 's', 't',)); (u, v, s, t,) = Q._first_ngens(4)
>>> P.subscheme([]).veronese_embedding(Integer(3), Q)                              # needs sage.libs.singular
Scheme morphism:
From: Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 1
over Rational Field defined by: (no polynomials)
To:   Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3
over Rational Field defined by:
-s^2 + v*t,
-v*s + u*t,
-v^2 + u*s
Defn: Defined on coordinates by sending (x : y) to
(x^3 : x^2*y : x*y^2 : y^3)

class sage.schemes.projective.projective_subscheme.AlgebraicScheme_subscheme_projective_field(A, polynomials, category=None)[source]#

Algebraic subschemes of projective spaces defined over fields.

Chow_form()[source]#

Return the Chow form associated to this subscheme.

For a $$k$$-dimensional subvariety of $$\mathbb{P}^N$$ of degree $$D$$. The $$(N-k-1)$$-dimensional projective linear subspaces of $$\mathbb{P}^N$$ meeting $$X$$ form a hypersurface in the Grassmannian $$G(N-k-1,N)$$. The homogeneous form of degree $$D$$ defining this hypersurface in Plucker coordinates is called the Chow form of $$X$$.

The base ring needs to be a number field, finite field, or $$\QQbar$$.

ALGORITHM:

For a $$k$$-dimension subscheme $$X$$ consider the $$k+1$$ linear forms $$l_i = u_{i0}x_0 + \cdots + u_{in}x_n$$. Let $$J$$ be the ideal in the polynomial ring $$K[x_i,u_{ij}]$$ defined by the equations of $$X$$ and the $$l_i$$. Let $$J'$$ be the saturation of $$J$$ with respect to the irrelevant ideal of the ambient projective space of $$X$$. The elimination ideal $$I = J' \cap K[u_{ij}]$$ is a principal ideal, let $$R$$ be its generator. The Chow form is obtained by writing $$R$$ as a polynomial in Plucker coordinates (i.e. bracket polynomials). [DS1994].

OUTPUT: a homogeneous polynomial.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P.<x0,x1,x2,x3> = ProjectiveSpace(GF(17), 3)
sage: X = P.subscheme([x3 + x1, x2 - x0, x2 - x3])
sage: X.Chow_form()                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
t0 - t1 + t2 + t3

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(GF(Integer(17)), Integer(3), names=('x0', 'x1', 'x2', 'x3',)); (x0, x1, x2, x3,) = P._first_ngens(4)
>>> X = P.subscheme([x3 + x1, x2 - x0, x2 - x3])
>>> X.Chow_form()                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
t0 - t1 + t2 + t3

sage: P.<x0,x1,x2,x3> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 3)
sage: X = P.subscheme([x3^2 - 101*x1^2 - 3*x2*x0])
sage: X.Chow_form()                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
t0^2 - 101*t2^2 - 3*t1*t3

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(3), names=('x0', 'x1', 'x2', 'x3',)); (x0, x1, x2, x3,) = P._first_ngens(4)
>>> X = P.subscheme([x3**Integer(2) - Integer(101)*x1**Integer(2) - Integer(3)*x2*x0])
>>> X.Chow_form()                                                         # needs sage.libs.singular
t0^2 - 101*t2^2 - 3*t1*t3

sage: # needs sage.libs.singular
sage: P.<x0,x1,x2,x3> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 3)
sage: X = P.subscheme([x0*x2 - x1^2, x0*x3 - x1*x2, x1*x3 - x2^2])
sage: Ch = X.Chow_form(); Ch
t2^3 + 2*t2^2*t3 + t2*t3^2 - 3*t1*t2*t4 - t1*t3*t4 + t0*t4^2 + t1^2*t5
sage: Y = P.subscheme_from_Chow_form(Ch, 1); Y
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by:
x2^2*x3 - x1*x3^2,                    -x2^3 + x0*x3^2,
-x2^2*x3 + x1*x3^2,                   x1*x2*x3 - x0*x3^2,
3*x1*x2^2 - 3*x0*x2*x3,               -2*x1^2*x3 + 2*x0*x2*x3,
-3*x1^2*x2 + 3*x0*x1*x3,              x1^3 - x0^2*x3,
x2^3 - x1*x2*x3,                      -3*x1*x2^2 + 2*x1^2*x3 + x0*x2*x3,
2*x0*x2^2 - 2*x0*x1*x3,               3*x1^2*x2 - 2*x0*x2^2 - x0*x1*x3,
-x0*x1*x2 + x0^2*x3,                  -x0*x1^2 + x0^2*x2,
-x1^3 + x0*x1*x2,                     x0*x1^2 - x0^2*x2
sage: I = Y.defining_ideal()
sage: I.saturation(I.ring().ideal(list(I.ring().gens())))[0]
Ideal (x2^2 - x1*x3, x1*x2 - x0*x3, x1^2 - x0*x2)
of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x0, x1, x2, x3 over Rational Field

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.libs.singular
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(3), names=('x0', 'x1', 'x2', 'x3',)); (x0, x1, x2, x3,) = P._first_ngens(4)
>>> X = P.subscheme([x0*x2 - x1**Integer(2), x0*x3 - x1*x2, x1*x3 - x2**Integer(2)])
>>> Ch = X.Chow_form(); Ch
t2^3 + 2*t2^2*t3 + t2*t3^2 - 3*t1*t2*t4 - t1*t3*t4 + t0*t4^2 + t1^2*t5
>>> Y = P.subscheme_from_Chow_form(Ch, Integer(1)); Y
Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
defined by:
x2^2*x3 - x1*x3^2,                    -x2^3 + x0*x3^2,
-x2^2*x3 + x1*x3^2,                   x1*x2*x3 - x0*x3^2,
3*x1*x2^2 - 3*x0*x2*x3,               -2*x1^2*x3 + 2*x0*x2*x3,
-3*x1^2*x2 + 3*x0*x1*x3,              x1^3 - x0^2*x3,
x2^3 - x1*x2*x3,                      -3*x1*x2^2 + 2*x1^2*x3 + x0*x2*x3,
2*x0*x2^2 - 2*x0*x1*x3,               3*x1^2*x2 - 2*x0*x2^2 - x0*x1*x3,
-x0*x1*x2 + x0^2*x3,                  -x0*x1^2 + x0^2*x2,
-x1^3 + x0*x1*x2,                     x0*x1^2 - x0^2*x2
>>> I = Y.defining_ideal()
>>> I.saturation(I.ring().ideal(list(I.ring().gens())))[Integer(0)]
Ideal (x2^2 - x1*x3, x1*x2 - x0*x3, x1^2 - x0*x2)
of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x0, x1, x2, x3 over Rational Field

global_height(prec=None)[source]#

Return the (projective) global height of the subscheme.

INPUT:

• prec – desired floating point precision (default: default RealField precision).

OUTPUT:

• a real number.

EXAMPLES:

sage: # needs sage.rings.number_field
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: NF.<a> = NumberField(x^2 - 5)
sage: P.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(NF, 2)
sage: X = P.subscheme([x^2 + y*z, 2*y*z, 3*x*y])
sage: X.global_height()                                                     # needs sage.libs.singular
0.000000000000000

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.rings.number_field
>>> R = QQ['x']; (x,) = R._first_ngens(1)
>>> NF = NumberField(x**Integer(2) - Integer(5), names=('a',)); (a,) = NF._first_ngens(1)
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(NF, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> X = P.subscheme([x**Integer(2) + y*z, Integer(2)*y*z, Integer(3)*x*y])
>>> X.global_height()                                                     # needs sage.libs.singular
0.000000000000000

sage: P.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 2)
sage: X = P.subscheme([z^2 - 101*y^2 - 3*x*z])
sage: X.global_height()  # long time                                        # needs sage.libs.singular
4.61512051684126

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> X = P.subscheme([z**Integer(2) - Integer(101)*y**Integer(2) - Integer(3)*x*z])
>>> X.global_height()  # long time                                        # needs sage.libs.singular
4.61512051684126

local_height(v, prec=None)[source]#

Return the (projective) local height of the subscheme.

INPUT:

• v – a prime or prime ideal of the base ring.

• prec – desired floating point precision (default: default RealField precision).

OUTPUT:

• a real number.

EXAMPLES:

sage: # needs sage.rings.number_field
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: NF.<a> = NumberField(x^2 - 5)
sage: I = NF.ideal(3)
sage: P.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(NF, 2)
sage: X = P.subscheme([3*x*y - 5*x*z, y^2])
sage: X.local_height(I)                                                     # needs sage.libs.singular
0.000000000000000

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.rings.number_field
>>> R = QQ['x']; (x,) = R._first_ngens(1)
>>> NF = NumberField(x**Integer(2) - Integer(5), names=('a',)); (a,) = NF._first_ngens(1)
>>> I = NF.ideal(Integer(3))
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(NF, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> X = P.subscheme([Integer(3)*x*y - Integer(5)*x*z, y**Integer(2)])
>>> X.local_height(I)                                                     # needs sage.libs.singular
0.000000000000000

sage: P.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 2)
sage: X = P.subscheme([z^2 - 101*y^2 - 3*x*z])
sage: X.local_height(2)                                                     # needs sage.libs.singular
0.000000000000000

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> X = P.subscheme([z**Integer(2) - Integer(101)*y**Integer(2) - Integer(3)*x*z])
>>> X.local_height(Integer(2))                                                     # needs sage.libs.singular
0.000000000000000

local_height_arch(i, prec=None)[source]#

Return the local height at the i-th infinite place of the subscheme.

INPUT:

• i – an integer.

• prec – desired floating point precision (default: default RealField precision).

OUTPUT:

• a real number.

EXAMPLES:

sage: # needs sage.rings.number_field
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: NF.<a> = NumberField(x^2 - 5)
sage: P.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(NF, 2)
sage: X = P.subscheme([x^2 + y*z, 3*x*y])
sage: X.local_height_arch(1)                                                # needs sage.libs.singular
0.0000000000000000000000000000000

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> # needs sage.rings.number_field
>>> R = QQ['x']; (x,) = R._first_ngens(1)
>>> NF = NumberField(x**Integer(2) - Integer(5), names=('a',)); (a,) = NF._first_ngens(1)
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(NF, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> X = P.subscheme([x**Integer(2) + y*z, Integer(3)*x*y])
>>> X.local_height_arch(Integer(1))                                                # needs sage.libs.singular
0.0000000000000000000000000000000

sage: P.<x,y,z> = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, 2)
sage: X = P.subscheme([z^2 - 101*y^2 - 3*x*z])
sage: X.local_height_arch(1)                                                # needs sage.libs.singular
4.61512051684126

>>> from sage.all import *
>>> P = ProjectiveSpace(QQ, Integer(2), names=('x', 'y', 'z',)); (x, y, z,) = P._first_ngens(3)
>>> X = P.subscheme([z**Integer(2) - Integer(101)*y**Integer(2) - Integer(3)*x*z])
>>> X.local_height_arch(Integer(1))                                                # needs sage.libs.singular
4.61512051684126
`