# Iwahori Hecke Algebras#

The `Iwahori Hecke algebra`

is defined
in [Iwahori1964]. In that original paper, the algebra occurs as the
convolution ring of functions on a \(p\)-adic group that are compactly
supported and invariant both left and right by the Iwahori subgroup.
However Iwahori determined its structure in terms of generators and
relations, and it turns out to be a deformation of the group algebra
of the affine Weyl group.

Once the presentation is found, the Iwahori Hecke algebra can be defined for any Coxeter group. It depends on a parameter \(q\) which in Iwahori’s paper is the cardinality of the residue field. But it could just as easily be an indeterminate.

Then the Iwahori Hecke algebra has the following description. Let \(W\) be a Coxeter group, with generators (simple reflections) \(s_1,\dots,s_n\). They satisfy the relations \(s_i^2 = 1\) and the braid relations

where the number of terms on each side is the order of \(s_i s_j\).

The Iwahori Hecke algebra has a basis \(T_1,\dots,T_n\) subject to relations that resemble those of the \(s_i\). They satisfy the braid relations and the quadratic relation

This can be modified by letting \(q_1\) and \(q_2\) be two indeterminates and letting

In this generality, Iwahori Hecke algebras have significance far beyond their origin in the representation theory of \(p\)-adic groups. For example, they appear in the geometry of Schubert varieties, where they are used in the definition of the Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials. They appear in connection with quantum groups, and in Jones’s original paper on the Jones polynomial.

Here is how to create an Iwahori Hecke algebra (in the \(T\) basis):

```
sage: R.<q> = PolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("B3",q)
sage: T = H.T(); T
Iwahori-Hecke algebra of type B3 in q,-1 over Univariate Polynomial Ring
in q over Integer Ring in the T-basis
sage: T1,T2,T3 = T.algebra_generators()
sage: T1*T1
(q-1)*T[1] + q
```

```
>>> from sage.all import *
>>> R = PolynomialRing(ZZ, names=('q',)); (q,) = R._first_ngens(1)
>>> H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("B3",q)
>>> T = H.T(); T
Iwahori-Hecke algebra of type B3 in q,-1 over Univariate Polynomial Ring
in q over Integer Ring in the T-basis
>>> T1,T2,T3 = T.algebra_generators()
>>> T1*T1
(q-1)*T[1] + q
```

If the Cartan type is affine, the generators will be numbered starting
with `T0`

instead of `T1`

.

You may convert a Weyl group element into the Iwahori Hecke algebra:

```
sage: W = WeylGroup("G2",prefix="s")
sage: [s1,s2] = W.simple_reflections()
sage: P.<q> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("G2",q)
sage: T = H.T()
sage: T(s1*s2)
T[1,2]
```

```
>>> from sage.all import *
>>> W = WeylGroup("G2",prefix="s")
>>> [s1,s2] = W.simple_reflections()
>>> P = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, names=('q',)); (q,) = P._first_ngens(1)
>>> H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("G2",q)
>>> T = H.T()
>>> T(s1*s2)
T[1,2]
```