# Iwahori-Hecke Algebras¶

AUTHORS:

• Daniel Bump, Nicolas Thiery (2010): Initial version

• Brant Jones, Travis Scrimshaw, Andrew Mathas (2013): Moved into the category framework and implemented the Kazhdan-Lusztig $$C$$ and $$C^{\prime}$$ bases

• Chase Meadors, Tianyuan Xu (2021): Implemented direct computation of products in the $$C^{\prime}$$ basis using du Cloux’s Coxeter3 package

class sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.IwahoriHeckeAlgebra(W, q1, q2, base_ring)

The Iwahori-Hecke algebra of the Coxeter group W with the specified parameters.

INPUT:

• W – a Coxeter group or Cartan type

• q1 – a parameter

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS:

• q2 – (default -1) another parameter

• base_ring – (default q1.parent()) a ring containing q1 and q2

The Iwahori-Hecke algebra [Iwa1964] is a deformation of the group algebra of a Weyl group or, more generally, a Coxeter group. These algebras are defined by generators and relations and they depend on a deformation parameter $$q$$. Taking $$q = 1$$, as in the following example, gives a ring isomorphic to the group algebra of the corresponding Coxeter group.

Let $$(W, S)$$ be a Coxeter system and let $$R$$ be a commutative ring containing elements $$q_1$$ and $$q_2$$. Then the Iwahori-Hecke algebra $$H = H_{q_1,q_2}(W,S)$$ of $$(W,S)$$ with parameters $$q_1$$ and $$q_2$$ is the unital associative algebra with generators $$\{T_s \mid s\in S\}$$ and relations:

\begin{split}\begin{aligned} (T_s - q_1)(T_s - q_2) &= 0\\ T_r T_s T_r \cdots &= T_s T_r T_s \cdots, \end{aligned}\end{split}

where the number of terms on either side of the second relations (the braid relations) is the order of $$rs$$ in the Coxeter group $$W$$, for $$r,s \in S$$.

Iwahori-Hecke algebras are fundamental in many areas of mathematics, ranging from the representation theory of Lie groups and quantum groups, to knot theory and statistical mechanics. For more information see, for example, [KL1979], [HKP2010], [Jon1987] and Wikipedia article Iwahori-Hecke_algebra.

Bases

A reduced expression for an element $$w \in W$$ is any minimal length word $$w = s_1 \cdots s_k$$, with $$s_i \in S$$. If $$w = s_1 \cdots s_k$$ is a reduced expression for $$w$$ then Matsumoto’s Monoid Lemma implies that $$T_w = T_{s_1} \cdots T_{s_k}$$ depends on $$w$$ and not on the choice of reduced expressions. Moreover, $$\{ T_w \mid w\in W \}$$ is a basis for the Iwahori-Hecke algebra $$H$$ and

$\begin{split}T_s T_w = \begin{cases} T_{sw}, & \text{if } \ell(sw) = \ell(w)+1,\\ (q_1+q_2)T_w -q_1q_2 T_{sw}, & \text{if } \ell(sw) = \ell(w)-1. \end{cases}\end{split}$

The $$T$$-basis of $$H$$ is implemented for any choice of parameters q_1 and q_2:

sage: R.<u,v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ,2)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', u,v)
sage: T = H.T()
sage: T
T
sage: T[1,2,1] + T
T[1,2,1] + T
sage: T * T[1,2,1]
(u+v)*T[1,2,1] + (-u*v)*T[2,1]
sage: T^-1
(-u^-1*v^-1)*T + (v^-1+u^-1)


Working over the Laurent polynomial ring $$Z[q^{\pm 1/2}]$$ Kazhdan and Lusztig proved that there exist two distinguished bases $$\{ C^{\prime}_w \mid w \in W \}$$ and $$\{ C_w \mid w \in W \}$$ of $$H$$ which are uniquely determined by the properties that they are invariant under the bar involution on $$H$$ and have triangular transitions matrices with polynomial entries of a certain form with the $$T$$-basis; see [KL1979] for a precise statement.

It turns out that the Kazhdan-Lusztig bases can be defined (by specialization) in $$H$$ whenever $$-q_1 q_2$$ is a square in the base ring. The Kazhdan-Lusztig bases are implemented inside $$H$$ whenever $$-q_1 q_2$$ has a square root:

sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', u^2,-v^2)
sage: T=H.T(); Cp= H.Cp(); C=H.C()
sage: T(Cp)
(u^-1*v^-1)*T + (u^-1*v)
sage: T(C)
(u^-1*v^-1)*T + (-u*v^-1)
sage: Cp(C)
Cp + (-u*v^-1-u^-1*v)
sage: elt = Cp*Cp+C; elt
Cp[2,3] + Cp + (-u*v^-1-u^-1*v)
sage: c = C(elt); c
C[2,3] + C + (u*v^-1+u^-1*v)*C + (u*v^-1+u^-1*v)*C + (u^2*v^-2+2+u^-2*v^2)
sage: t = T(c); t
(u^-2*v^-2)*T[2,3] + (u^-1*v^-1)*T + (u^-2)*T + (u^-2)*T + (-u*v^-1+u^-2*v^2)
sage: Cp(t)
Cp[2,3] + Cp + (-u*v^-1-u^-1*v)
sage: Cp(c)
Cp[2,3] + Cp + (-u*v^-1-u^-1*v)


The conversions to and from the Kazhdan-Lusztig bases are done behind the scenes whenever the Kazhdan-Lusztig bases are well-defined. Once a suitable Iwahori-Hecke algebra is defined they will work without further intervention.

For example, with the “standard parameters”, so that $$(T_r-q^2)(T_r+1) = 0$$:

sage: R.<q> = LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', q^2)
sage: T=H.T(); Cp=H.Cp(); C=H.C()
sage: C(T)
q*C + q^2
sage: elt = Cp(T[1,2,1]); elt
q^3*Cp[1,2,1] - q^2*Cp[2,1] - q^2*Cp[1,2] + q*Cp + q*Cp - 1
sage: C(elt)
q^3*C[1,2,1] + q^4*C[2,1] + q^4*C[1,2] + q^5*C + q^5*C + q^6


With the “normalized presentation”, so that $$(T_r-q)(T_r+q^{-1}) = 0$$:

sage: R.<q> = LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', q, -q^-1)
sage: T=H.T(); Cp=H.Cp(); C=H.C()
sage: C(T)
C + q
sage: elt = Cp(T[1,2,1]); elt
Cp[1,2,1] - (q^-1)*Cp[2,1] - (q^-1)*Cp[1,2] + (q^-2)*Cp + (q^-2)*Cp - (q^-3)
sage: C(elt)
C[1,2,1] + q*C[2,1] + q*C[1,2] + q^2*C + q^2*C + q^3


In the group algebra, so that $$(T_r-1)(T_r+1) = 0$$:

sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', 1)
sage: T=H.T(); Cp=H.Cp(); C=H.C()
sage: C(T)
C + 1
sage: Cp(T[1,2,1])
Cp[1,2,1] - Cp[2,1] - Cp[1,2] + Cp + Cp - 1
sage: C(_)
C[1,2,1] + C[2,1] + C[1,2] + C + C + 1


On the other hand, if the Kazhdan-Lusztig bases are not well-defined (when $$-q_1 q_2$$ is not a square), attempting to use the Kazhdan-Lusztig bases triggers an error:

sage: R.<q>=LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', q)
sage: C=H.C()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: The Kazhdan_Lusztig bases are defined only when -q_1*q_2 is a square


We give an example in affine type:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra(['A',2,1], v^2)
sage: T=H.T(); Cp=H.Cp(); C=H.C()
sage: C(T[1,0,2])
v^3*C[1,0,2] + v^4*C[1,0] + v^4*C[0,2] + v^4*C[1,2]
+ v^5*C + v^5*C + v^5*C + v^6
sage: Cp(T[1,0,2])
v^3*Cp[1,0,2] - v^2*Cp[1,0] - v^2*Cp[0,2] - v^2*Cp[1,2]
+ v*Cp + v*Cp + v*Cp - 1
sage: T(C[1,0,2])
(v^-3)*T[1,0,2] - (v^-1)*T[1,0] - (v^-1)*T[0,2] - (v^-1)*T[1,2]
+ v*T + v*T + v*T - v^3
sage: T(Cp[1,0,2])
(v^-3)*T[1,0,2] + (v^-3)*T[1,0] + (v^-3)*T[0,2] + (v^-3)*T[1,2]
+ (v^-3)*T + (v^-3)*T + (v^-3)*T + (v^-3)


EXAMPLES:

We start by creating a Iwahori-Hecke algebra together with the three bases for these algebras that are currently supported:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: T = H.T()
sage: C = H.C()
sage: Cp = H.Cp()


It is also possible to define these three bases quickly using the inject_shorthands() method.

Next we create our generators for the $$T$$-basis and do some basic computations and conversions between the bases:

sage: T1,T2,T3 = T.algebra_generators()
sage: T1 == T
True
sage: T1*T2 == T[1,2]
True
sage: T1 + T2
T + T
sage: T1*T1
-(1-v^2)*T + v^2
sage: (T1 + T2)*T3 + T1*T1 - (v + v^-1)*T2
T[3,1] + T[2,3] - (1-v^2)*T - (v^-1+v)*T + v^2
sage: Cp(T1)
v*Cp - 1
sage: Cp((v^1 - 1)*T1*T2 - T3)
-(v^2-v^3)*Cp[1,2] + (v-v^2)*Cp - v*Cp + (v-v^2)*Cp + v
sage: C(T1)
v*C + v^2
sage: p = C(T2*T3 - v*T1); p
v^2*C[2,3] - v^2*C + v^3*C + v^3*C - (v^3-v^4)
sage: Cp(p)
v^2*Cp[2,3] - v^2*Cp - v*Cp - v*Cp + (1+v)
sage: Cp(T2*T3 - v*T1)
v^2*Cp[2,3] - v^2*Cp - v*Cp - v*Cp + (1+v)


In addition to explicitly creating generators, we have two shortcuts to basis elements. The first is by using elements of the underlying Coxeter group, the other is by using reduced words:

sage: s1,s2,s3 = H.coxeter_group().gens()
sage: T[s1*s2*s1*s3] == T[1,2,1,3]
True
sage: T[1,2,1,3] == T1*T2*T1*T3
True


Todo

Implement multi-parameter Iwahori-Hecke algebras together with their Kazhdan-Lusztig bases. That is, Iwahori-Hecke algebras with (possibly) different parameters for each conjugacy class of simple reflections in the underlying Coxeter group.

Todo

When given “generic parameters” we should return the generic Iwahori-Hecke algebra with these parameters and allow the user to work inside this algebra rather than doing calculations behind the scenes in a copy of the generic Iwahori-Hecke algebra. The main problem is that it is not clear how to recognise when the parameters are “generic”.

class A(IHAlgebra, prefix=None)

Bases: sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.IwahoriHeckeAlgebra._Basis

The $$A$$-basis of an Iwahori-Hecke algebra.

The $$A$$-basis of the Iwahori-Hecke algebra is the simplest basis that is invariant under the Goldman involution $$\#$$, up to sign. For $$w$$ in the underlying Coxeter group define:

$A_w = T_w + (-1)^{\ell(w)}T_w^{\#} = T_w + (-1)^{\ell(w)}T_{w^{-1}}^{-1}$

This gives a basis of the Iwahori-Hecke algebra whenever 2 is a unit in the base ring. The $$A$$-basis induces a $$\ZZ / 2\ZZ$$-grading on the Iwahori-Hecke algebra.

The $$A$$-basis is a basis only when $$2$$ is invertible. An error is raised whenever $$2$$ is not a unit in the base ring.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: A=H.A(); T=H.T()
sage: T(A)
T + (1/2-1/2*v^2)
sage: T(A[1,2])
T[1,2] + (1/2-1/2*v^2)*T + (1/2-1/2*v^2)*T + (1/2-v^2+1/2*v^4)
sage: A*A
A[1,2] - (1/4-1/2*v^2+1/4*v^4)

goldman_involution_on_basis(w)

Return the effect of applying the Goldman involution to the basis element self[w].

This function is not intended to be called directly. Instead, use goldman_involution().

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: A=H.A()
sage: s=H.coxeter_group().simple_reflection(1)
sage: A.goldman_involution_on_basis(s)
-A
sage: A[1,2].goldman_involution()
A[1,2]

to_T_basis(w)

Return the $$A$$-basis element self[w] as a linear combination of $$T$$-basis elements.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2); A=H.A(); T=H.T()
sage: s=H.coxeter_group().simple_reflection(1)
sage: A.to_T_basis(s)
T + (1/2-1/2*v^2)
sage: T(A[1,2])
T[1,2] + (1/2-1/2*v^2)*T + (1/2-1/2*v^2)*T + (1/2-v^2+1/2*v^4)
sage: A(T[1,2])
A[1,2] - (1/2-1/2*v^2)*A - (1/2-1/2*v^2)*A

class B(IHAlgebra, prefix=None)

Bases: sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.IwahoriHeckeAlgebra._Basis

The $$B$$-basis of an Iwahori-Hecke algebra.

The $$B$$-basis is the unique basis of the Iwahori-Hecke algebra that is invariant under the Goldman involution, up to sign, and invariant under the Kazhdan-Lusztig bar involution. In the generic case, the $$B$$-basis becomes the group basis of the group algebra of the Coxeter group the $$B$$-basis upon setting the Hecke parameters equal to $$1$$. If $$w$$ is an element of the corresponding Coxeter group then the $$B$$-basis element $$B_w$$ is uniquely determined by the conditions that $$B_w^{\#} = (-1)^{\ell(w)} B_w$$, where $$\#$$ is the Goldman involution and

$B_w = T_w + \sum_{v<w}b_{vw}(q) T_v$

where $$b_{vw}(q) \neq 0$$ only if $$v < w$$ in the Bruhat order and $$\ell(v) \not\equiv \ell(w) \pmod 2$$.

This gives a basis of the Iwahori-Hecke algebra whenever $$2$$ is a unit in the base ring. The $$B$$-basis induces a $$\ZZ / 2 \ZZ$$-grading on the Iwahori-Hecke algebra. The $$B$$-basis elements are also invariant under the Kazhdan-Lusztig bar involution and hence are related to the Kazhdan-Lusztig bases.

The $$B$$-basis is a basis only when $$2$$ is invertible. An error is raised whenever $$2$$ is not a unit in the base ring.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: A=H.A(); T=H.T(); Cp=H.Cp()
sage: T(A)
T + (1/2-1/2*v^2)
sage: T(A[1,2])
T[1,2] + (1/2-1/2*v^2)*T + (1/2-1/2*v^2)*T + (1/2-v^2+1/2*v^4)
sage: A*A
A[1,2] - (1/4-1/2*v^2+1/4*v^4)
sage: Cp(A*A)
v^2*Cp[1,2] - (1/2*v+1/2*v^3)*Cp - (1/2*v+1/2*v^3)*Cp
+ (1/4+1/2*v^2+1/4*v^4)
sage: Cp(A)
v*Cp - (1/2+1/2*v^2)
sage: Cp(A[1,2])
v^2*Cp[1,2] - (1/2*v+1/2*v^3)*Cp
- (1/2*v+1/2*v^3)*Cp + (1/2+1/2*v^4)
sage: Cp(A[1,2,1])
v^3*Cp[1,2,1] - (1/2*v^2+1/2*v^4)*Cp[2,1]
- (1/2*v^2+1/2*v^4)*Cp[1,2] + (1/2*v+1/2*v^5)*Cp
+ (1/2*v+1/2*v^5)*Cp - (1/2+1/2*v^6)

goldman_involution_on_basis(w)

Return the Goldman involution to the basis element indexed by w.

This function is not intended to be called directly. Instead, use goldman_involution().

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: B=H.B()
sage: s=H.coxeter_group().simple_reflection(1)
sage: B.goldman_involution_on_basis(s)
-B
sage: B[1,2].goldman_involution()
B[1,2]

to_T_basis(w)

Return the $$B$$-basis element self[w] as a linear combination of $$T$$-basis elements.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2); B=H.B(); T=H.T()
sage: s=H.coxeter_group().simple_reflection(1)
sage: B.to_T_basis(s)
T + (1/2-1/2*v^2)
sage: T(B[1,2])
T[1,2] + (1/2-1/2*v^2)*T + (1/2-1/2*v^2)*T
sage: B(T[1,2])
B[1,2] - (1/2-1/2*v^2)*B - (1/2-1/2*v^2)*B + (1/2-v^2+1/2*v^4)

class C(IHAlgebra, prefix=None)

Bases: sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.IwahoriHeckeAlgebra._KLHeckeBasis

The Kazhdan-Lusztig $$C$$-basis of Iwahori-Hecke algebra.

Assuming the standard quadratic relations of $$(T_r-q)(T_r+1)=0$$, for every element $$w$$ in the Coxeter group, there is a unique element $$C_w$$ in the Iwahori-Hecke algebra which is uniquely determined by the two properties:

\begin{split}\begin{aligned} \overline{C_w} &= C_w \\ C_w &= (-1)^{\ell(w)} q^{\ell(w)/2} \sum_{v \leq w} (-q)^{-\ell(v)}\overline{P_{v,w}(q)} T_v \end{aligned}\end{split}

where $$\leq$$ is the Bruhat order on the underlying Coxeter group and $$P_{v,w}(q)\in\ZZ[q,q^{-1}]$$ are polynomials in $$\ZZ[q]$$ such that $$P_{w,w}(q) = 1$$ and if $$v < w$$ then $$\deg P_{v,w}(q) \leq \frac{1}{2}(\ell(w) - \ell(v) - 1)$$. This is related to the $$C^{\prime}$$ Kazhdan-Lusztig basis by $$C_i = -\alpha(C_i^{\prime})$$ where $$\alpha$$ is the $$\ZZ$$-linear Hecke involution defined by $$q^{1/2} \mapsto q^{-1/2}$$ and $$\alpha(T_i) = -(q_1 q_2)^{-1/2} T_i$$.

More generally, if the quadratic relations are of the form (T_s-q_1)(T_s-q_2)=0 and $$\sqrt{-q_1q_2}$$ exists then, for a simple reflection $$s$$, the corresponding Kazhdan-Lusztig basis element is:

$C_s = (-q_1 q_2)^{1/2} (1 - (-q_1 q_2)^{-1/2} T_s).$

See [KL1979] for more details.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A5', v**2)
sage: W = H.coxeter_group()
sage: s1,s2,s3,s4,s5 = W.simple_reflections()
sage: T = H.T()
sage: C = H.C()
sage: T(s1)**2
-(1-v^2)*T + v^2
sage: T(C(s1))
(v^-1)*T - v
sage: T(C(s1)*C(s2)*C(s1))
(v^-3)*T[1,2,1] - (v^-1)*T[2,1] - (v^-1)*T[1,2]
+ (v^-1+v)*T + v*T - (v+v^3)

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: W = H.coxeter_group()
sage: s1,s2,s3 = W.simple_reflections()
sage: C = H.C()
sage: C(s1*s2*s1)
C[1,2,1]
sage: C(s1)**2
-(v^-1+v)*C
sage: C(s1)*C(s2)*C(s1)
C[1,2,1] + C

hash_involution_on_basis(w)

Return the effect of applying the hash involution to the basis element self[w].

This function is not intended to be called directly. Instead, use hash_involution().

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: C=H.C()
sage: s=H.coxeter_group().simple_reflection(1)
sage: C.hash_involution_on_basis(s)
-C - (v^-1+v)
sage: C[s].hash_involution()
-C - (v^-1+v)

C_prime

alias of IwahoriHeckeAlgebra.Cp

class Cp(IHAlgebra, prefix=None)

Bases: sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.IwahoriHeckeAlgebra._KLHeckeBasis

The $$C^{\prime}$$ Kazhdan-Lusztig basis of Iwahori-Hecke algebra.

Assuming the standard quadratic relations of $$(T_r-q)(T_r+1)=0$$, for every element $$w$$ in the Coxeter group, there is a unique element $$C^{\prime}_w$$ in the Iwahori-Hecke algebra which is uniquely determined by the two properties:

\begin{split}\begin{aligned} \overline{ C^{\prime}_w } &= C^{\prime}_w, \\ C^{\prime}_w &= q^{-\ell(w)/2} \sum_{v \leq w} P_{v,w}(q) T_v, \end{aligned}\end{split}

where $$\leq$$ is the Bruhat order on the underlying Coxeter group and $$P_{v,w}(q) \in \ZZ[q,q^{-1}]$$ are polynomials in $$\ZZ[q]$$ such that $$P_{w,w}(q) = 1$$ and if $$v < w$$ then $$\deg P_{v,w}(q) \leq \frac{1}{2}(\ell(w)-\ell(v)-1)$$.

More generally, if the quadratic relations are of the form (T_s-q_1)(T_s-q_2)=0 and $$\sqrt{-q_1q_2}$$ exists then, for a simple reflection $$s$$, the corresponding Kazhdan-Lusztig basis element is:

$C^{\prime}_s = (-q_1 q_2)^{-1/2} (T_s + 1).$

See [KL1979] for more details.

If the optional coxeter3 package is available and the Iwahori–Hecke algebra was initialized in the “standard” presentation where $$\{q_1,q_2\} = \{v^2,1\}$$ as sets or the “normalized” presentation where $$\{q_1,q_2\} = \{v,-v^{-1}\}$$ as sets, the function :func::$$product_on_basis$$ in this class computes products in the $$C^{\prime}$$-basis directly in the basis itself, using coxeter3 to calculate certain $$\mu$$-coefficients quickly. If the above conditions are not all met, the function computes such products indirectly, by converting elements to the $$T$$-basis, computing products there, and converting back. The indirect method can be prohibitively slow for more complex calculations; the direct method is faster.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: v = R.gen(0)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A5', v**2)
sage: W = H.coxeter_group()
sage: s1,s2,s3,s4,s5 = W.simple_reflections()
sage: T = H.T()
sage: Cp = H.Cp()
sage: T(s1)**2
-(1-v^2)*T + v^2
sage: T(Cp(s1))
(v^-1)*T + (v^-1)
sage: T(Cp(s1)*Cp(s2)*Cp(s1))
(v^-3)*T[1,2,1] + (v^-3)*T[2,1] + (v^-3)*T[1,2]
+ (v^-3+v^-1)*T + (v^-3)*T + (v^-3+v^-1)

sage: R = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: v = R.gen(0)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: W = H.coxeter_group()
sage: s1,s2,s3 = W.simple_reflections()
sage: Cp = H.Cp()
sage: Cp(s1*s2*s1)
Cp[1,2,1]
sage: Cp(s1)**2
(v^-1+v)*Cp
sage: Cp(s1)*Cp(s2)*Cp(s1)
Cp[1,2,1] + Cp
sage: Cp(s1)*Cp(s2)*Cp(s3)*Cp(s1)*Cp(s2)    # long time
Cp[1,2,3,1,2] + Cp[1,2,1] + Cp[3,1,2]


In the following product computations, whether coxeter3 is installed makes a big difference: without coxeter3 the product in type $$H_4$$ takes about 5 seconds to compute and the product in type $$A_9$$ seems infeasible, while with coxeter3 both the computations are instant:

sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('H4', v**2)   # optional - coxeter3
sage: Cp = H.Cp()                           # optional - coxeter3
sage: Cp[3,4,3]*Cp[3,4,3,4]*Cp[1,2,3,4]     # optional - coxeter3
(v^-2+2+v^2)*Cp[3,4,3,4,1,2,3,4,2]
+ (v^-2+2+v^2)*Cp[3,4,3,4,3,1,2]
+ (v^-3+3*v^-1+3*v+v^3)*Cp[3,4,3,4,3,1]
+ (v^-1+v)*Cp[3,4,1,2,3,4]
+ (v^-1+v)*Cp[3,4,1,2]

sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A9', v**2)   # optional - coxeter3
sage: Cp = H.Cp()                           # optional - coxeter3
sage: Cp[1,2,1,8,9,8]*Cp[1,2,3,7,8,9]       # optional - coxeter3
(v^-2+2+v^2)*Cp[7,8,9,7,8,7,1,2,3,1]
+ (v^-2+2+v^2)*Cp[8,9,8,7,1,2,3,1]
+ (v^-3+3*v^-1+3*v+v^3)*Cp[8,9,8,1,2,3,1]


To use coxeter3 for product computations most efficiently, we recommend creating the Iwahori-Hecke algebra from a Coxeter group implemented with coxeter3 to avoid unnecessary conversions, as in the following example with the same product computed in the last one:

sage: R = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')                    # optional - coxeter3
sage: v = R.gen(0)                                          # optional - coxeter3
sage: W = CoxeterGroup('A9', implementation='coxeter3')     # optional - coxeter3
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra(W, v**2)                      # optional - coxeter3
sage: Cp = H.Cp()                                           # optional - coxeter3
sage: Cp[1,2,1,8,9,8]*Cp[1,2,3,7,8,9]                       # optional - coxeter3
(v^-2+2+v^2)*Cp[1,2,1,3,7,8,7,9,8,7]
+ (v^-2+2+v^2)*Cp[1,2,1,3,8,9,8,7]
+ (v^-3+3*v^-1+3*v+v^3)*Cp[1,2,1,3,8,9,8]

hash_involution_on_basis(w)

Return the effect of applying the hash involution to the basis element self[w].

This function is not intended to be called directly. Instead, use hash_involution().

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: Cp=H.Cp()
sage: s=H.coxeter_group().simple_reflection(1)
sage: Cp.hash_involution_on_basis(s)
-Cp + (v^-1+v)
sage: Cp[s].hash_involution()
-Cp + (v^-1+v)

product_on_basis(w1, w2)

Return the expansion of $$C^{\prime}_{w_1} \cdot C^{\prime}_{w_2}$$ in the $$C^{\prime}$$-basis.

If coxeter3 is installed and the Iwahori–Hecke algebra is in the standard or normalized presentation, the product is computed directly using the method described in ALGORITHM. If not, the product is computed indirectly by converting the factors to the $$T$$-basis, computing the product there, and converting back.

The following formulas for products of the forms $$C^{\prime}_s \cdot C^{\prime}_w$$ and $$C^{\prime}_w \cdot C^{\prime}_s$$, where $$s$$ is a generator of the Coxeter group and $$w$$ an arbitrary element, are key to the direct computation method. The formulas are valid for both the standard and normalized presentation of the Hecke algebra.

\begin{align}\begin{aligned}\begin{split}C^{\prime}_s \cdot C^{\prime}_w = \begin{cases} (q+q^{-1})C^{\prime}_{w}, & \text{if } \ell(sw) = \ell(w)-1,\\ C^{\prime}_{sw}+\sum_{v\leq w, sv \leq v} \mu(v,w)C^{\prime}_v, & \text{if } \ell(sw) = \ell(w)+1. \end{cases}\end{split}\\\qquad\qquad\\\begin{split}C^{\prime}_w \cdot C^{\prime}_s = \begin{cases} (q+q^{-1})C^{\prime}_{w}, & \text{if } \ell(ws) = \ell(w)-1,\\ C^{\prime}_{ws}+\sum_{v\leq w, vs \leq v} \mu(v,w)C^{\prime}_v, & \text{if } \ell(ws) = \ell(w)+1. \end{cases}\end{split}\end{aligned}\end{align}

In the above, $$\leq$$ is the Bruhat order on the Coxeter group and $$\mu(v,w)$$ is the “leading coefficient of Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials”; see [KL1979] and [Lus2013] for more details. The method designates the computation of the $$\mu$$-coefficients to Sage’s interface to Fokko du Cloux’s coxeter3 package, which is why the method requires the creation of the Coxeter group using the 'coxeter3' implementation.

ALGORITHM:

The direct algorithm for computing $$C^{\prime}_x \cdot C^{\prime}_y$$ runs in two steps as follows.

If $$\ell(x) \leq \ell(y)$$, we first decompose $$C^{\prime}_x$$ into a polynomial in the generators $$C^{\prime}_s (s\in S)$$ and then multiply that polynomial with $$C^{\prime}_y$$. If $$\ell(x) > \ell(y)$$, we decompose $$C^{\prime}_y$$ into a polynomial in $$C^{\prime}_s (s\in S)$$ and multiply that polynomial with $$C^{\prime}_x$$. The second step (multiplication) is done by repeatedly applying the formulas displayed earlier directly. The first step (decomposition) is done by induction on the Bruhat order as follows: for every element $$u\in W$$ with length $$\ell(u)>1$$, pick a left descent $$s$$ of $$u$$ and write $$u=sw$$ (so $$w=su$$), then note that

$C^{\prime}_u = C^{\prime}_s \cdot C^{\prime}_{w} - \sum_{v \le u; sv < v} \mu(v,w) C^{\prime}_v$

by the earlier formulas, where the element $$w$$ and all elements $$v$$’s on the right side are lower than $$u$$ in the Bruhat order; this allows us to finish the computation by decomposing the lower order terms $$C^{\prime}_w$$ and each $$C^{\prime}_v$$. For example, for $$u=121, s=1, w=21$$ in type $$A_3$$ we have $$C^{\prime}_{121} = C^{\prime}_1 C^{\prime}_{21} - C^{\prime}_1$$, where the lower order term $$C^{\prime}_{21}$$ further decomposes into $$C^{\prime}_2 C^{\prime}_1$$, therefore

$C^{\prime}_{121} = C^{\prime}_1 C^{\prime}_2 C^{\prime}_1 - C^{\prime}_1.$

We note that the base cases $$\ell(x)=1$$ or $$\ell(x)=0$$ of the above induction occur when $$x$$ is itself a Coxeter generator $$s$$ or the group identity, respectively. The decomposition is trivial in these cases (we have $$C^{\prime}_x=C^{\prime}_s$$ or $$C^{\prime}_x=1$$, the unit of the Hecke algebra).

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ, 'v')                    # optional - coxeter3
sage: W = CoxeterGroup('A3', implementation='coxeter3')         # optional - coxeter3
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra(W, v**2); Cp=H.Cp()               # optional - coxeter3
sage: Cp.product_on_basis(W([1,2,1]), W([3,1]))                 # optional - coxeter3
(v^-1+v)*Cp[1,2,1,3]
sage: Cp.product_on_basis(W([1,2,1]), W([3,1,2]))               # optional - coxeter3
(v^-1+v)*Cp[1,2,1,3,2] + (v^-1+v)*Cp[1,2,1]

class T(algebra, prefix=None)

Bases: sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.IwahoriHeckeAlgebra._Basis

The standard basis of Iwahori-Hecke algebra.

For every simple reflection $$s_i$$ of the Coxeter group, there is a corresponding generator $$T_i$$ of Iwahori-Hecke algebra. These are subject to the relations:

$(T_i - q_1) (T_i - q_2) = 0$

together with the braid relations:

$T_i T_j T_i \cdots = T_j T_i T_j \cdots,$

where the number of terms on each of the two sides is the order of $$s_i s_j$$ in the Coxeter group.

Weyl group elements form a basis of Iwahori-Hecke algebra $$H$$ with the property that if $$w_1$$ and $$w_2$$ are Coxeter group elements such that $$\ell(w_1 w_2) = \ell(w_1) + \ell(w_2)$$ then $$T_{w_1 w_2} = T_{w_1} T_{w_2}$$.

With the default value $$q_2 = -1$$ and with $$q_1 = q$$ the generating relation may be written $$T_i^2 = (q-1) \cdot T_i + q \cdot 1$$ as in [Iwa1964].

EXAMPLES:

sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("A3", 1)
sage: T = H.T()
sage: T1,T2,T3 = T.algebra_generators()
sage: T1*T2*T3*T1*T2*T1 == T3*T2*T1*T3*T2*T3
True
sage: w0 = T(H.coxeter_group().long_element())
sage: w0
T[1,2,3,1,2,1]
sage: T = H.T(prefix="s")
sage: T.an_element()
s[1,2,3] + 2*s + 3*s + 1

class Element

A class for elements of an Iwahori-Hecke algebra in the $$T$$ basis.

inverse()

Return the inverse if self is a basis element.

An element is a basis element if it is $$T_w$$ where $$w$$ is in the Weyl group. The base ring must be a field or Laurent polynomial ring. Other elements of the ring have inverses but the inverse method is only implemented for the basis elements.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("A2", q).T()
sage: [T1,T2] = H.algebra_generators()
sage: x = (T1*T2).inverse(); x
(q^-2)*T[2,1] + (q^-2-q^-1)*T + (q^-2-q^-1)*T + (q^-2-2*q^-1+1)
sage: x*T1*T2
1

bar_on_basis(w)

Return the bar involution of $$T_w$$, which is $$T^{-1}_{w^-1}$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: W = H.coxeter_group()
sage: s1,s2,s3 = W.simple_reflections()
sage: T = H.T()
sage: b = T.bar_on_basis(s1*s2*s3); b
(v^-6)*T[1,2,3] + (v^-6-v^-4)*T[3,1]
+ (v^-6-v^-4)*T[1,2] + (v^-6-v^-4)*T[2,3]
+ (v^-6-2*v^-4+v^-2)*T + (v^-6-2*v^-4+v^-2)*T
+ (v^-6-2*v^-4+v^-2)*T + (v^-6-3*v^-4+3*v^-2-1)
sage: b.bar()
T[1,2,3]

goldman_involution_on_basis(w)

Return the Goldman involution to the basis element indexed by w.

The goldman involution is the algebra involution of the Iwahori-Hecke algebra determined by

$T_w \mapsto (-q_1 q_2)^{\ell(w)} T_{w^{-1}}^{-1},$

where $$w$$ is an element of the corresponding Coxeter group.

This map is defined in [Iwa1964] and it is used to define the alternating subalgebra of the Iwahori-Hecke algebra, which is the fixed-point subalgebra of the Goldman involution.

This function is not intended to be called directly. Instead, use goldman_involution().

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: T=H.T()
sage: s=H.coxeter_group().simple_reflection(1)
sage: T.goldman_involution_on_basis(s)
-T - (1-v^2)
sage: T[s].goldman_involution()
-T - (1-v^2)
sage: h = T*T + (v^3 - v^-1 + 2)*T[3,1,2,3]
sage: h.goldman_involution()
-(v^-1-2-v^3)*T[1,2,3,2]
- (v^-1-2-v+2*v^2-v^3+v^5)*T[3,1,2]
- (v^-1-2-v+2*v^2-v^3+v^5)*T[1,2,3]
- (v^-1-2-v+2*v^2-v^3+v^5)*T[2,3,2]
- (v^-1-2-2*v+4*v^2-2*v^4+2*v^5-v^7)*T[3,1]
- (v^-1-3-2*v+4*v^2-2*v^4+2*v^5-v^7)*T[1,2]
- (v^-1-2-2*v+4*v^2-2*v^4+2*v^5-v^7)*T[3,2]
- (v^-1-2-2*v+4*v^2-2*v^4+2*v^5-v^7)*T[2,3]
- (v^-1-3-2*v+5*v^2+v^3-4*v^4+v^5+2*v^6-2*v^7+v^9)*T
- (v^-1-2-3*v+6*v^2+2*v^3-6*v^4+2*v^5+2*v^6-3*v^7+v^9)*T
- (v^-1-3-3*v+7*v^2+2*v^3-6*v^4+2*v^5+2*v^6-3*v^7+v^9)*T
- (v^-1-3-3*v+8*v^2+3*v^3-9*v^4+6*v^6-3*v^7-2*v^8+3*v^9-v^11)
sage: h.goldman_involution().goldman_involution() == h
True

hash_involution_on_basis(w)

Return the hash involution on the basis element self[w].

The hash involution $$\alpha$$ is a $$\ZZ$$-algebra involution of the Iwahori-Hecke algebra determined by $$q^{1/2} \mapsto q^{-1/2}$$, and $$T_w \mapsto (-q_1 q_2)^{-\ell(w)} T_w$$, for $$w$$ an element of the corresponding Coxeter group.

This map is defined in [KL1979] and it is used to change between the $$C$$ and $$C^{\prime}$$ bases because $$\alpha(C_w) = (-1)^{\ell(w)}C^{\prime}_w$$.

This function is not intended to be called directly. Instead, use hash_involution().

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A3', v**2)
sage: T=H.T()
sage: s=H.coxeter_group().simple_reflection(1)
sage: T.hash_involution_on_basis(s)
-(v^-2)*T
sage: T[s].hash_involution()
-(v^-2)*T
sage: h = T*T + (v^3 - v^-1 + 2)*T[3,1,2,3]
sage: h.hash_involution()
(v^-11+2*v^-8-v^-7)*T[1,2,3,2] + (v^-4)*T[1,2]
sage: h.hash_involution().hash_involution() == h
True

inverse_generator(i)

Return the inverse of the $$i$$-th generator, if it exists.

This method is only available if the Iwahori-Hecke algebra parameters q1 and q2 are both invertible. In this case, the algebra generators are also invertible and this method returns the inverse of self.algebra_generator(i).

EXAMPLES:

sage: P.<q1, q2>=QQ[]
sage: F = Frac(P)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("A2", q1, q2=q2, base_ring=F).T()
sage: H.base_ring()
Fraction Field of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in q1, q2 over Rational Field
sage: H.inverse_generator(1)
-1/(q1*q2)*T + ((q1+q2)/(q1*q2))
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("A2", q1, base_ring=F).T()
sage: H.inverse_generator(2)
-(1/(-q1))*T + ((q1-1)/(-q1))
sage: P1.<r1, r2> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: H1 = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("B2", r1, q2=r2, base_ring=P1).T()
sage: H1.base_ring()
Multivariate Laurent Polynomial Ring in r1, r2 over Rational Field
sage: H1.inverse_generator(2)
(-r1^-1*r2^-1)*T + (r2^-1+r1^-1)
sage: H2 = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("C2", r1, base_ring=P1).T()
sage: H2.inverse_generator(2)
(r1^-1)*T + (-1+r1^-1)

inverse_generators()

Return the inverses of all the generators, if they exist.

This method is only available if q1 and q2 are invertible. In that case, the algebra generators are also invertible.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P.<q> = PolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: F = Frac(P)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("A2", q, base_ring=F).T()
sage: T1,T2 = H.algebra_generators()
sage: U1,U2 = H.inverse_generators()
sage: U1*T1,T1*U1
(1, 1)
sage: P1.<q> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: H1 = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("A2", q, base_ring=P1).T(prefix="V")
sage: V1,V2 = H1.algebra_generators()
sage: W1,W2 = H1.inverse_generators()
sage: [W1,W2]
[(q^-1)*V + (q^-1-1), (q^-1)*V + (q^-1-1)]
sage: V1*W1, W2*V2
(1, 1)

product_by_generator(x, i, side='right')

Return $$T_i \cdot x$$, where $$T_i$$ is the $$i$$-th generator. This is coded individually for use in x._mul_().

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = QQ[]; H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("A2", q).T()
sage: T1, T2 = H.algebra_generators()
sage: [H.product_by_generator(x, 1) for x in [T1,T2]]
[(q-1)*T + q, T[2,1]]
sage: [H.product_by_generator(x, 1, side = "left") for x in [T1,T2]]
[(q-1)*T + q, T[1,2]]

product_by_generator_on_basis(w, i, side='right')

Return the product $$T_w T_i$$ (resp. $$T_i T_w$$) if side is 'right' (resp. 'left').

If the quadratic relation is $$(T_i-u)(T_i-v) = 0$$, then we have

$\begin{split}T_w T_i = \begin{cases} T_{ws_i} & \text{if } \ell(ws_i) = \ell(w) + 1, \\ (u+v) T_{ws_i} - uv T_w & \text{if } \ell(w s_i) = \ell(w)-1. \end{cases}\end{split}$

The left action is similar.

INPUT:

• w – an element of the Coxeter group

• i – an element of the index set

• side'right' (default) or 'left'

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = QQ[]; H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("A2", q)
sage: T = H.T()
sage: s1,s2 = H.coxeter_group().simple_reflections()
sage: [T.product_by_generator_on_basis(w, 1) for w in [s1,s2,s1*s2]]
[(q-1)*T + q, T[2,1], T[1,2,1]]
sage: [T.product_by_generator_on_basis(w, 1, side="left") for w in [s1,s2,s1*s2]]
[(q-1)*T + q, T[1,2], (q-1)*T[1,2] + q*T]

product_on_basis(w1, w2)

Return $$T_{w_1} T_{w_2}$$, where $$w_1$$ and $$w_2$$ are words in the Coxeter group.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = QQ[]; H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("A2", q)
sage: T = H.T()
sage: s1,s2 = H.coxeter_group().simple_reflections()
sage: [T.product_on_basis(s1,x) for x in [s1,s2]]
[(q-1)*T + q, T[1,2]]

to_C_basis(w)

Return $$T_w$$ as a linear combination of $$C$$-basis elements.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ, 'v')
sage: v = R.gen(0)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A2', v**2)
sage: s1,s2 = H.coxeter_group().simple_reflections()
sage: T = H.T()
sage: C = H.C()
sage: T.to_C_basis(s1)
v*T + v^2
sage: C(T(s1))
v*C + v^2
sage: C(v^-1*T(s1) - v)
C
sage: C(T(s1*s2)+T(s1)+T(s2)+1)
v^2*C[1,2] + (v+v^3)*C + (v+v^3)*C + (1+2*v^2+v^4)
sage: C(T(s1*s2*s1))
v^3*C[1,2,1] + v^4*C[2,1] + v^4*C[1,2] + v^5*C + v^5*C + v^6

to_Cp_basis(w)

Return $$T_w$$ as a linear combination of $$C^{\prime}$$-basis elements.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<v> = LaurentPolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra('A2', v**2)
sage: s1,s2 = H.coxeter_group().simple_reflections()
sage: T = H.T()
sage: Cp = H.Cp()
sage: T.to_Cp_basis(s1)
v*Cp - 1
sage: Cp(T(s1))
v*Cp - 1
sage: Cp(T(s1)+1)
v*Cp
sage: Cp(T(s1*s2)+T(s1)+T(s2)+1)
v^2*Cp[1,2]
sage: Cp(T(s1*s2*s1))
v^3*Cp[1,2,1] - v^2*Cp[2,1] - v^2*Cp[1,2] + v*Cp + v*Cp - 1

a_realization()

Return a particular realization of self (the $$T$$-basis).

EXAMPLES:

sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("B2", 1)
sage: H.a_realization()
Iwahori-Hecke algebra of type B2 in 1,-1 over Integer Ring in the T-basis

cartan_type()

Return the Cartan type of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("D4", 1).cartan_type()
['D', 4]

coxeter_group()

Return the Coxeter group of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("B2", 1).coxeter_group()
Finite Coxeter group over Number Field in a with defining polynomial x^2 - 2 with a = 1.414213562373095? with Coxeter matrix:
[1 4]
[4 1]

coxeter_type()

Return the Coxeter type of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("D4", 1).coxeter_type()
Coxeter type of ['D', 4]

q1()

Return the parameter $$q_1$$ of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("B2", 1)
sage: H.q1()
1

q2()

Return the parameter $$q_2$$ of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: H = IwahoriHeckeAlgebra("B2", 1)
sage: H.q2()
-1

standard

alias of IwahoriHeckeAlgebra.T

class sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.IwahoriHeckeAlgebra_nonstandard(W)

This is a class which is used behind the scenes by IwahoriHeckeAlgebra to compute the Kazhdan-Lusztig bases. It is not meant to be used directly. It implements the slightly idiosyncratic (but convenient) Iwahori-Hecke algebra with two parameters which is defined over the Laurent polynomial ring $$\ZZ[u,u^{-1},v,v^{-1}]$$ in two variables and has quadratic relations:

$(T_r - u)(T_r + v^2/u) = 0.$

The point of these relations is that the product of the two parameters is $$v^2$$ which is a square in $$\ZZ[u,u^{-1},v,v^{-1}]$$. Consequently, the Kazhdan-Lusztig bases are defined for this algebra.

More generally, if we have a Iwahori-Hecke algebra with two parameters which has quadratic relations of the form:

$(T_r - q_1)(T_r - q_2) = 0$

where $$-q_1 q_2$$ is a square then the Kazhdan-Lusztig bases are well-defined for this algebra. Moreover, these bases be computed by specialization from the generic Iwahori-Hecke algebra using the specialization which sends $$u \mapsto q_1$$ and $$v \mapsto \sqrt{-q_1 q_2}$$, so that $$v^2 / u \mapsto -q_2$$.

For example, if $$q_1 = q = Q^2$$ and $$q_2 = -1$$ then $$u \mapsto q$$ and $$v \mapsto \sqrt{q} = Q$$; this is the standard presentation of the Iwahori-Hecke algebra with $$(T_r - q)(T_r + 1) = 0$$. On the other hand, when $$q_1 = q$$ and $$q_2 = -q^{-1}$$ then $$u \mapsto q$$ and $$v \mapsto 1$$. This is the normalized presentation with $$(T_r - v)(T_r + v^{-1}) = 0$$.

Warning

This class uses non-standard parameters for the Iwahori-Hecke algebra and are related to the standard parameters by an outer automorphism that is non-trivial on the $$T$$-basis.

class C(IHAlgebra, prefix=None)

The Kazhdan-Lusztig $$C$$-basis for the generic Iwahori-Hecke algebra.

to_T_basis(w)

Return $$C_w$$ as a linear combination of $$T$$-basis elements.

EXAMPLES:

sage: H = sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.IwahoriHeckeAlgebra_nonstandard("A3")
sage: s1,s2,s3 = H.coxeter_group().simple_reflections()
sage: T = H.T()
sage: C = H.C()
sage: C.to_T_basis(s1)
(v^-1)*T + (-u*v^-1)
sage: C.to_T_basis(s1*s2)
(v^-2)*T[1,2] + (-u*v^-2)*T + (-u*v^-2)*T + (u^2*v^-2)
sage: C.to_T_basis(s1*s2*s1)
(v^-3)*T[1,2,1] + (-u*v^-3)*T[2,1] + (-u*v^-3)*T[1,2]
+ (u^2*v^-3)*T + (u^2*v^-3)*T + (-u^3*v^-3)
sage: T(C(s1*s2*s1))
(v^-3)*T[1,2,1] + (-u*v^-3)*T[2,1] + (-u*v^-3)*T[1,2]
+ (u^2*v^-3)*T + (u^2*v^-3)*T + (-u^3*v^-3)
sage: T(C(s2*s1*s3*s2))
(v^-4)*T[2,3,1,2] + (-u*v^-4)*T[2,3,1] + (-u*v^-4)*T[1,2,1]
+ (-u*v^-4)*T[3,1,2] + (-u*v^-4)*T[2,3,2] + (u^2*v^-4)*T[2,1]
+ (u^2*v^-4)*T[3,1] + (u^2*v^-4)*T[1,2] + (u^2*v^-4)*T[3,2]
+ (u^2*v^-4)*T[2,3] + (-u^3*v^-4)*T + (-u^3*v^-4)*T
+ (-u^3*v^-4-u*v^-2)*T + (u^4*v^-4+u^2*v^-2)

C_prime
class Cp(IHAlgebra, prefix=None)

The Kazhdan-Lusztig $$C^{\prime}$$-basis for the generic Iwahori-Hecke algebra.

to_T_basis(w)

Return $$C^{\prime}_w$$ as a linear combination of $$T$$-basis elements.

EXAMPLES:

sage: H = sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.IwahoriHeckeAlgebra_nonstandard("A3")
sage: s1,s2,s3 = H.coxeter_group().simple_reflections()
sage: T = H.T()
sage: Cp = H.Cp()
sage: Cp.to_T_basis(s1)
(v^-1)*T + (u^-1*v)
sage: Cp.to_T_basis(s1*s2)
(v^-2)*T[1,2] + (u^-1)*T + (u^-1)*T + (u^-2*v^2)
sage: Cp.to_T_basis(s1*s2*s1)
(v^-3)*T[1,2,1] + (u^-1*v^-1)*T[2,1] + (u^-1*v^-1)*T[1,2]
+ (u^-2*v)*T + (u^-2*v)*T + (u^-3*v^3)
sage: T(Cp(s1*s2*s1))
(v^-3)*T[1,2,1] + (u^-1*v^-1)*T[2,1] + (u^-1*v^-1)*T[1,2]
+ (u^-2*v)*T + (u^-2*v)*T + (u^-3*v^3)
sage: T(Cp(s2*s1*s3*s2))
(v^-4)*T[2,3,1,2] + (u^-1*v^-2)*T[2,3,1] + (u^-1*v^-2)*T[1,2,1]
+ (u^-1*v^-2)*T[3,1,2] + (u^-1*v^-2)*T[2,3,2] + (u^-2)*T[2,1]
+ (u^-2)*T[3,1] + (u^-2)*T[1,2] + (u^-2)*T[3,2]
+ (u^-2)*T[2,3] + (u^-3*v^2)*T + (u^-3*v^2)*T
+ (u^-1+u^-3*v^2)*T + (u^-2*v^2+u^-4*v^4)

class T(algebra, prefix=None)

The $$T$$-basis for the generic Iwahori-Hecke algebra.

to_C_basis(w)

Return $$T_w$$ as a linear combination of $$C$$-basis elements.

To compute this we piggy back off the $$C^{\prime}$$-basis conversion using the observation that the hash involution sends $$T_w$$ to $$(-q_1 q_1)^{\ell(w)} T_w$$ and $$C_w$$ to $$(-1)^{\ell(w)} C^{\prime}_w$$. Therefore, if

$T_w = \sum_v a_{vw} C^{\prime}_v$

then

$T_w = (-q_1 q_2)^{\ell(w)} \Big( \sum_v a_{vw} C^{\prime}_v \Big)^\# = \sum_v (-1)^{\ell(v)} \overline{a_{vw}} C_v$

Note that we cannot just apply hash_involution() here because this involution always returns the answer with respect to the same basis.

EXAMPLES:

sage: H = sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.IwahoriHeckeAlgebra_nonstandard("A2")
sage: s1,s2 = H.coxeter_group().simple_reflections()
sage: T = H.T()
sage: C = H.C()
sage: T.to_C_basis(s1)
v*T + u
sage: C(T(s1))
v*C + u
sage: C(T( C ))
C
sage: C(T(s1*s2)+T(s1)+T(s2)+1)
v^2*C[1,2] + (u*v+v)*C + (u*v+v)*C + (u^2+2*u+1)
sage: C(T(s1*s2*s1))
v^3*C[1,2,1] + u*v^2*C[2,1] + u*v^2*C[1,2] + u^2*v*C + u^2*v*C + u^3

to_Cp_basis(w)

Return $$T_w$$ as a linear combination of $$C^{\prime}$$-basis elements.

EXAMPLES:

sage: H = sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.IwahoriHeckeAlgebra_nonstandard("A2")
sage: s1,s2 = H.coxeter_group().simple_reflections()
sage: T = H.T()
sage: Cp = H.Cp()
sage: T.to_Cp_basis(s1)
v*Cp + (-u^-1*v^2)
sage: Cp(T(s1))
v*Cp + (-u^-1*v^2)
sage: Cp(T(s1)+1)
v*Cp + (-u^-1*v^2+1)
sage: Cp(T(s1*s2)+T(s1)+T(s2)+1)
v^2*Cp[1,2] + (-u^-1*v^3+v)*Cp + (-u^-1*v^3+v)*Cp
+ (u^-2*v^4-2*u^-1*v^2+1)
sage: Cp(T(s1*s2*s1))
v^3*Cp[1,2,1] + (-u^-1*v^4)*Cp[2,1] + (-u^-1*v^4)*Cp[1,2]
+ (u^-2*v^5)*Cp + (u^-2*v^5)*Cp + (-u^-3*v^6)

sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.index_cmp(x, y)

Compare two term indices x and y by Bruhat order, then by word length, and then by the generic comparison.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra import index_cmp
sage: W = WeylGroup(['A',2,1])
sage: x = W.from_reduced_word([0,1])
sage: y = W.from_reduced_word([0,2,1])
sage: x.bruhat_le(y)
True
sage: index_cmp(x, y)
1

sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra.normalized_laurent_polynomial(R, p)

Return a normalized version of the (Laurent polynomial) p in the ring R.

Various ring operations in sage return an element of the field of fractions of the parent ring even though the element is “known” to belong to the base ring. This function is a hack to recover from this. This occurs somewhat haphazardly with Laurent polynomial rings:

sage: R.<q>=LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: [type(c) for c in (q**-1).coefficients()]
[<class 'sage.rings.integer.Integer'>]


It also happens in any ring when dividing by units:

sage: type ( 3/1 )
<class 'sage.rings.rational.Rational'>
sage: type ( -1/-1 )
<class 'sage.rings.rational.Rational'>


This function is a variation on a suggested workaround of Nils Bruin.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.algebras.iwahori_hecke_algebra import normalized_laurent_polynomial
sage: type ( normalized_laurent_polynomial(ZZ, 3/1) )
<class 'sage.rings.integer.Integer'>
sage: R.<q>=LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: [type(c) for c in normalized_laurent_polynomial(R, q**-1).coefficients()]
[<class 'sage.rings.integer.Integer'>]
sage: R.<u,v>=LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ,2)
sage: p=normalized_laurent_polynomial(R, 2*u**-1*v**-1+u*v)
sage: ui=normalized_laurent_polynomial(R, u^-1)
sage: vi=normalized_laurent_polynomial(R, v^-1)
sage: p(ui,vi)
2*u*v + u^-1*v^-1
sage: q= u+v+ui
sage: q(ui,vi)
u + v^-1 + u^-1