The Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula#


  • Eero Hakavuori (2018-09-23): initial version

sage.algebras.lie_algebras.bch.bch_iterator(X=None, Y=None)#

A generator function which returns successive terms of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula.


  • X – (optional) an element of a Lie algebra

  • Y – (optional) an element of a Lie algebra

The BCH formula is an expression for \(\log(\exp(X)\exp(Y))\) as a sum of Lie brackets of X and Y with rational coefficients. In arbitrary Lie algebras, the infinite sum is only guaranteed to converge for X and Y close to zero.

If the elements X and Y are not given, then the iterator will return successive terms of the abstract BCH formula, i.e., the BCH formula for the generators of the free Lie algebra on 2 generators.

If the Lie algebra containing X and Y is not nilpotent, the iterator will output infinitely many elements. If the Lie algebra is nilpotent, the number of elements outputted is equal to the nilpotency step.


The terms of the abstract BCH formula up to fifth order brackets:

sage: from sage.algebras.lie_algebras.bch import bch_iterator
sage: bch = bch_iterator()
sage: next(bch)
X + Y
sage: next(bch)
1/2*[X, Y]
sage: next(bch)
1/12*[X, [X, Y]] + 1/12*[[X, Y], Y]
sage: next(bch)
1/24*[X, [[X, Y], Y]]
sage: next(bch)
-1/720*[X, [X, [X, [X, Y]]]] + 1/180*[X, [X, [[X, Y], Y]]]
+ 1/360*[[X, [X, Y]], [X, Y]] + 1/180*[X, [[[X, Y], Y], Y]]
+ 1/120*[[X, Y], [[X, Y], Y]] - 1/720*[[[[X, Y], Y], Y], Y]

For nilpotent Lie algebras the BCH formula only has finitely many terms:

sage: L = LieAlgebra(QQ, 2, step=3)
sage: L.inject_variables()
Defining X_1, X_2, X_12, X_112, X_122
sage: [Z for Z in bch_iterator(X_1, X_2)]
[X_1 + X_2, 1/2*X_12, 1/12*X_112 + 1/12*X_122]
sage: [Z for Z in bch_iterator(X_1 + X_2, X_12)]
[X_1 + X_2 + X_12, 1/2*X_112 - 1/2*X_122, 0]

The elements X and Y don’t need to be elements of the same Lie algebra if there is a coercion from one to the other:

sage: L = LieAlgebra(QQ, 3, step=2)
sage: L.inject_variables()
Defining X_1, X_2, X_3, X_12, X_13, X_23
sage: S = L.subalgebra(X_1, X_2)
sage: bch1 = [Z for Z in bch_iterator(S(X_1), S(X_2))]; bch1
[X_1 + X_2, 1/2*X_12]
sage: bch1[0].parent() == S
sage: bch2 = [Z for Z in bch_iterator(S(X_1), X_3)]; bch2
[X_1 + X_3, 1/2*X_13]
sage: bch2[0].parent() == L

The BCH formula requires a coercion from the rationals:

sage: L.<X,Y,Z> = LieAlgebra(ZZ, 2, step=2)
sage: bch = bch_iterator(X, Y); next(bch)
Traceback (most recent call last):
TypeError: the BCH formula is not well defined since Integer Ring has no coercion from Rational Field


The BCH formula \(\log(\exp(X)\exp(Y)) = \sum_k Z_k\) is computed starting from \(Z_1 = X + Y\), by the recursion

\[(m+1)Z_{m+1} = \frac{1}{2}[X - Y, Z_m] + \sum_{2\leq 2p \leq m}\frac{B_{2p}}{(2p)!}\sum_{k_1+\cdots+k_{2p}=m} [Z_{k_1}, [\cdots [Z_{k_{2p}}, X + Y]\cdots],\]

where \(B_{2p}\) are the Bernoulli numbers, see Lemma 2.15.3. in [Var1984].


The time needed to compute each successive term increases exponentially. For example on one machine iterating through \(Z_{11},...,Z_{18}\) for a free Lie algebra, computing each successive term took 4-5 times longer, going from 0.1s for \(Z_{11}\) to 21 minutes for \(Z_{18}\).