# Schur symmetric functions#

class sage.combinat.sf.schur.SymmetricFunctionAlgebra_schur(Sym)#

A class for methods related to the Schur symmetric function basis

INPUT:

• self – a Schur symmetric function basis

• Sym – an instance of the ring of the symmetric functions

class Element#

Bases: Element

expand(n, alphabet='x')#

Expand the symmetric function self as a symmetric polynomial in n variables.

INPUT:

• n – a nonnegative integer

• alphabet – (default: 'x') a variable for the expansion

OUTPUT:

A monomial expansion of self in the $$n$$ variables labelled by alphabet.

EXAMPLES:

sage: s = SymmetricFunctions(QQ).s()
sage: a = s([2,1])
sage: a.expand(2)
x0^2*x1 + x0*x1^2
sage: a.expand(3)
x0^2*x1 + x0*x1^2 + x0^2*x2 + 2*x0*x1*x2 + x1^2*x2 + x0*x2^2 + x1*x2^2
sage: a.expand(4)
x0^2*x1 + x0*x1^2 + x0^2*x2 + 2*x0*x1*x2 + x1^2*x2 + x0*x2^2 + x1*x2^2 + x0^2*x3 + 2*x0*x1*x3 + x1^2*x3 + 2*x0*x2*x3 + 2*x1*x2*x3 + x2^2*x3 + x0*x3^2 + x1*x3^2 + x2*x3^2
sage: a.expand(2, alphabet='y')
y0^2*y1 + y0*y1^2
sage: a.expand(2, alphabet=['a','b'])
a^2*b + a*b^2
sage: s([1,1,1,1]).expand(3)
0
sage: (s([]) + 2*s()).expand(3)
2*x0 + 2*x1 + 2*x2 + 1
sage: s().expand(0)
0
sage: (3*s([])).expand(0)
3

exponential_specialization(t=None, q=1)#

Return the exponential specialization of a symmetric function (when $$q = 1$$), or the $$q$$-exponential specialization (when $$q \neq 1$$).

The exponential specialization $$ex$$ at $$t$$ is a $$K$$-algebra homomorphism from the $$K$$-algebra of symmetric functions to another $$K$$-algebra $$R$$. It is defined whenever the base ring $$K$$ is a $$\QQ$$-algebra and $$t$$ is an element of $$R$$. The easiest way to define it is by specifying its values on the powersum symmetric functions to be $$p_1 = t$$ and $$p_n = 0$$ for $$n > 1$$. Equivalently, on the homogeneous functions it is given by $$ex(h_n) = t^n / n!$$; see Proposition 7.8.4 of [EnumComb2].

By analogy, the $$q$$-exponential specialization is a $$K$$-algebra homomorphism from the $$K$$-algebra of symmetric functions to another $$K$$-algebra $$R$$ that depends on two elements $$t$$ and $$q$$ of $$R$$ for which the elements $$1 - q^i$$ for all positive integers $$i$$ are invertible. It can be defined by specifying its values on the complete homogeneous symmetric functions to be

$ex_q(h_n) = t^n / [n]_q!,$

where $$[n]_q!$$ is the $$q$$-factorial. Equivalently, for $$q \neq 1$$ and a homogeneous symmetric function $$f$$ of degree $$n$$, we have

$ex_q(f) = (1-q)^n t^n ps_q(f),$

where $$ps_q(f)$$ is the stable principal specialization of $$f$$ (see principal_specialization()). (See (7.29) in [EnumComb2].)

The limit of $$ex_q$$ as $$q \to 1$$ is $$ex$$.

INPUT:

• t (default: None) – the value to use for $$t$$; the default is to create a ring of polynomials in t.

• q (default: $$1$$) – the value to use for $$q$$. If q is None, then a ring (or fraction field) of polynomials in q is created.

We use the formula in the proof of Corollary 7.21.6 of [EnumComb2]

$ex_{q}(s_\lambda) = t^{|\lambda|} q^{\sum_i (i-1)\lambda_i} / \prod_{u\in\lambda} (1 + q + q^2 + \dots + q^{h(u)-1})$

where $$h(u)$$ is the hook length of a cell $$u$$ in $$\lambda$$.

As a limit case, we obtain a formula for $$q=1$$

$ex_{1}(s_\lambda) = f^\lambda t^{|\lambda|} / |\lambda|!$

where $$f^\lambda$$ is the number of standard Young tableaux of shape $$\lambda$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: s = SymmetricFunctions(QQ).s()
sage: x = s[5,3]
sage: x.exponential_specialization()
1/1440*t^8

sage: x = 5*s[1,1,1] + 3*s[2,1] + 1
sage: x.exponential_specialization()
11/6*t^3 + 1


We also support the $$q$$-exponential_specialization:

sage: factor(s.exponential_specialization(q=var("q"), t=var("t")))   # optional - sage.symbolic
t^3/((q^2 + q + 1)*(q + 1))

omega()#

Return the image of self under the omega automorphism.

The omega automorphism is defined to be the unique algebra endomorphism $$\omega$$ of the ring of symmetric functions that satisfies $$\omega(e_k) = h_k$$ for all positive integers $$k$$ (where $$e_k$$ stands for the $$k$$-th elementary symmetric function, and $$h_k$$ stands for the $$k$$-th complete homogeneous symmetric function). It furthermore is a Hopf algebra endomorphism and an involution, and it is also known as the omega involution. It sends the power-sum symmetric function $$p_k$$ to $$(-1)^{k-1} p_k$$ for every positive integer $$k$$.

The images of some bases under the omega automorphism are given by

$\omega(e_{\lambda}) = h_{\lambda}, \qquad \omega(h_{\lambda}) = e_{\lambda}, \qquad \omega(p_{\lambda}) = (-1)^{|\lambda| - \ell(\lambda)} p_{\lambda}, \qquad \omega(s_{\lambda}) = s_{\lambda^{\prime}},$

where $$\lambda$$ is any partition, where $$\ell(\lambda)$$ denotes the length (length()) of the partition $$\lambda$$, where $$\lambda^{\prime}$$ denotes the conjugate partition (conjugate()) of $$\lambda$$, and where the usual notations for bases are used ($$e$$ = elementary, $$h$$ = complete homogeneous, $$p$$ = powersum, $$s$$ = Schur).

omega_involution() is a synonym for the omega() method.

OUTPUT:

• the image of self under the omega automorphism

EXAMPLES:

sage: s = SymmetricFunctions(QQ).s()
sage: s([2,1]).omega()
s[2, 1]
sage: s([2,1,1]).omega()
s[3, 1]

omega_involution()#

Return the image of self under the omega automorphism.

The omega automorphism is defined to be the unique algebra endomorphism $$\omega$$ of the ring of symmetric functions that satisfies $$\omega(e_k) = h_k$$ for all positive integers $$k$$ (where $$e_k$$ stands for the $$k$$-th elementary symmetric function, and $$h_k$$ stands for the $$k$$-th complete homogeneous symmetric function). It furthermore is a Hopf algebra endomorphism and an involution, and it is also known as the omega involution. It sends the power-sum symmetric function $$p_k$$ to $$(-1)^{k-1} p_k$$ for every positive integer $$k$$.

The images of some bases under the omega automorphism are given by

$\omega(e_{\lambda}) = h_{\lambda}, \qquad \omega(h_{\lambda}) = e_{\lambda}, \qquad \omega(p_{\lambda}) = (-1)^{|\lambda| - \ell(\lambda)} p_{\lambda}, \qquad \omega(s_{\lambda}) = s_{\lambda^{\prime}},$

where $$\lambda$$ is any partition, where $$\ell(\lambda)$$ denotes the length (length()) of the partition $$\lambda$$, where $$\lambda^{\prime}$$ denotes the conjugate partition (conjugate()) of $$\lambda$$, and where the usual notations for bases are used ($$e$$ = elementary, $$h$$ = complete homogeneous, $$p$$ = powersum, $$s$$ = Schur).

omega_involution() is a synonym for the omega() method.

OUTPUT:

• the image of self under the omega automorphism

EXAMPLES:

sage: s = SymmetricFunctions(QQ).s()
sage: s([2,1]).omega()
s[2, 1]
sage: s([2,1,1]).omega()
s[3, 1]

principal_specialization(n=+Infinity, q=None)#

Return the principal specialization of a symmetric function.

The principal specialization of order $$n$$ at $$q$$ is the ring homomorphism $$ps_{n,q}$$ from the ring of symmetric functions to another commutative ring $$R$$ given by $$x_i \mapsto q^{i-1}$$ for $$i \in \{1,\dots,n\}$$ and $$x_i \mapsto 0$$ for $$i > n$$. Here, $$q$$ is a given element of $$R$$, and we assume that the variables of our symmetric functions are $$x_1, x_2, x_3, \ldots$$. (To be more precise, $$ps_{n,q}$$ is a $$K$$-algebra homomorphism, where $$K$$ is the base ring.) See Section 7.8 of [EnumComb2].

The stable principal specialization at $$q$$ is the ring homomorphism $$ps_q$$ from the ring of symmetric functions to another commutative ring $$R$$ given by $$x_i \mapsto q^{i-1}$$ for all $$i$$. This is well-defined only if the resulting infinite sums converge; thus, in particular, setting $$q = 1$$ in the stable principal specialization is an invalid operation.

INPUT:

• n (default: infinity) – a nonnegative integer or infinity, specifying whether to compute the principal specialization of order n or the stable principal specialization.

• q (default: None) – the value to use for $$q$$; the default is to create a ring of polynomials in q (or a field of rational functions in q) over the given coefficient ring.

For $$q=1$$ we use the formula from Corollary 7.21.4 of [EnumComb2]:

$ps_{n,1}(s_\lambda) = \prod_{u\in\lambda} (n+c(u)) / h(u),$

where $$h(u)$$ is the hook length of a cell $$u$$ in $$\lambda$$, and where $$c(u)$$ is the content of a cell $$u$$ in $$\lambda$$.

For $$n=infinity$$ we use the formula from Corollary 7.21.3 of [EnumComb2]

$ps_q(s_\lambda) = q^{\sum_i (i-1)\lambda_i} / \prod_{u\in\lambda} (1-q^{h(u)}).$

Otherwise, we use the formula from Theorem 7.21.2 of [EnumComb2],

$ps_{n,q}(s_\lambda) = q^{\sum_i (i-1)\lambda_i} \prod_{u\in\lambda} (1-q^{n+c(u)})/(1-q^{h(u)}).$

EXAMPLES:

sage: s = SymmetricFunctions(QQ).s()
sage: x = s
sage: x.principal_specialization(3)
q^4 + q^3 + 2*q^2 + q + 1

sage: x = 3*s[2,2] + 2*s + 1
sage: x.principal_specialization(3, q=var("q"))                         # optional - sage.symbolic
3*(q^4 - 1)*(q^3 - 1)*q^2/((q^2 - 1)*(q - 1)) + 2*(q^3 - 1)/(q - 1) + 1

sage: x.principal_specialization(q=var("q"))                            # optional - sage.symbolic
-2/(q - 1) + 3*q^2/((q^3 - 1)*(q^2 - 1)^2*(q - 1)) + 1

scalar(x, zee=None)#

Return the standard scalar product between self and $$x$$.

Note that the Schur functions are self-dual with respect to this scalar product. They are also lower-triangularly related to the monomial symmetric functions with respect to this scalar product.

INPUT:

• x – element of the ring of symmetric functions over the same base ring as self

• zee – an optional function on partitions giving the value for the scalar product between the power-sum symmetric function $$p_{\mu}$$ and itself (the default value is the standard zee() function)

OUTPUT:

• the scalar product between self and x

EXAMPLES:

sage: s = SymmetricFunctions(ZZ).s()
sage: a = s([2,1])
sage: b = s([1,1,1])
sage: c = 2*s([1,1,1])
sage: d = a + b
sage: a.scalar(a)
1
sage: b.scalar(b)
1
sage: b.scalar(a)
0
sage: b.scalar(c)
2
sage: c.scalar(c)
4
sage: d.scalar(a)
1
sage: d.scalar(b)
1
sage: d.scalar(c)
2

sage: m = SymmetricFunctions(ZZ).monomial()
sage: p4 = Partitions(4)
sage: l = [ [s(p).scalar(m(q)) for q in p4] for p in p4]
sage: matrix(l)
[ 1  0  0  0  0]
[-1  1  0  0  0]
[ 0 -1  1  0  0]
[ 1 -1 -1  1  0]
[-1  2  1 -3  1]

verschiebung(n)#

Return the image of the symmetric function self under the $$n$$-th Verschiebung operator.

The $$n$$-th Verschiebung operator $$\mathbf{V}_n$$ is defined to be the unique algebra endomorphism $$V$$ of the ring of symmetric functions that satisfies $$V(h_r) = h_{r/n}$$ for every positive integer $$r$$ divisible by $$n$$, and satisfies $$V(h_r) = 0$$ for every positive integer $$r$$ not divisible by $$n$$. This operator $$\mathbf{V}_n$$ is a Hopf algebra endomorphism. For every nonnegative integer $$r$$ with $$n \mid r$$, it satisfies

$\mathbf{V}_n(h_r) = h_{r/n}, \quad \mathbf{V}_n(p_r) = n p_{r/n}, \quad \mathbf{V}_n(e_r) = (-1)^{r - r/n} e_{r/n}$

(where $$h$$ is the complete homogeneous basis, $$p$$ is the powersum basis, and $$e$$ is the elementary basis). For every nonnegative integer $$r$$ with $$n \nmid r$$, it satisfes

$\mathbf{V}_n(h_r) = \mathbf{V}_n(p_r) = \mathbf{V}_n(e_r) = 0.$

The $$n$$-th Verschiebung operator is also called the $$n$$-th Verschiebung endomorphism. Its name derives from the Verschiebung (German for “shift”) endomorphism of the Witt vectors.

The $$n$$-th Verschiebung operator is adjoint to the $$n$$-th Frobenius operator (see frobenius() for its definition) with respect to the Hall scalar product (scalar()).

The action of the $$n$$-th Verschiebung operator on the Schur basis can also be computed explicitly. The following (probably clumsier than necessary) description can be obtained by solving exercise 7.61 in Stanley’s [STA].

Let $$\lambda$$ be a partition. Let $$n$$ be a positive integer. If the $$n$$-core of $$\lambda$$ is nonempty, then $$\mathbf{V}_n(s_\lambda) = 0$$. Otherwise, the following method computes $$\mathbf{V}_n(s_\lambda)$$: Write the partition $$\lambda$$ in the form $$(\lambda_1, \lambda_2, \ldots, \lambda_{ns})$$ for some nonnegative integer $$s$$. (If $$n$$ does not divide the length of $$\lambda$$, then this is achieved by adding trailing zeroes to $$\lambda$$.) Set $$\beta_i = \lambda_i + ns - i$$ for every $$s \in \{ 1, 2, \ldots, ns \}$$. Then, $$(\beta_1, \beta_2, \ldots, \beta_{ns})$$ is a strictly decreasing sequence of nonnegative integers. Stably sort the list $$(1, 2, \ldots, ns)$$ in order of (weakly) increasing remainder of $$-1 - \beta_i$$ modulo $$n$$. Let $$\xi$$ be the sign of the permutation that is used for this sorting. Let $$\psi$$ be the sign of the permutation that is used to stably sort the list $$(1, 2, \ldots, ns)$$ in order of (weakly) increasing remainder of $$i - 1$$ modulo $$n$$. (Notice that $$\psi = (-1)^{n(n-1)s(s-1)/4}$$.) Then, $$\mathbf{V}_n(s_\lambda) = \xi \psi \prod_{i = 0}^{n - 1} s_{\lambda^{(i)}}$$, where $$(\lambda^{(0)}, \lambda^{(1)}, \ldots, \lambda^{(n - 1)})$$ is the $$n$$-quotient of $$\lambda$$.

INPUT:

• n – a positive integer

OUTPUT:

The result of applying the $$n$$-th Verschiebung operator (on the ring of symmetric functions) to self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Sym = SymmetricFunctions(ZZ)
sage: s = Sym.s()
sage: s.verschiebung(2)
0
sage: s.verschiebung(6)
s
sage: s[6,3].verschiebung(3)
s[2, 1] + s
sage: s[6,3,1].verschiebung(2)
-s[3, 2]
sage: s[3,2,1].verschiebung(1)
s[3, 2, 1]
sage: s([]).verschiebung(1)
s[]
sage: s([]).verschiebung(4)
s[]

coproduct_on_basis(mu)#

Returns the coproduct of self(mu).

Here self is the basis of Schur functions in the ring of symmetric functions.

INPUT:

• self – a Schur symmetric function basis

• mu – a partition

OUTPUT:

• the image of the mu-th Schur function under the comultiplication of the Hopf algebra of symmetric functions; this is an element of the tensor square of the Schur basis

EXAMPLES:

sage: Sym = SymmetricFunctions(QQ)
sage: s = Sym.schur()
sage: s.coproduct_on_basis()
s[] # s + s # s + s # s[]

product_on_basis(left, right)#

Return the product of left and right.

INPUT:

• self – a Schur symmetric function basis

• left, right – partitions

OUTPUT:

• an element of the Schur basis, the product of left and right